Increased physical activity is not enough to recover astrocytic population from dark-rearing. Synergy with multisensory enrichment is required.

Elimination of sensory inputs (deprivation) modifies the properties of the sensory cortex and serves as a model for studying plasticity during postnatal development. Many studies on the effects of deprivation have been performed in the visual cortex using dark-rearing as a visual deprivation model. It induces changes in all cellular and molecular components, […]

VEGF reverts the cognitive impairment induced by a focal traumatic brain injury during the development of rats raised under environmental enrichment

The role of VEGF in the nervous system is extensive; apart from its angiogenic effect, VEGF has been described as a neuroprotective, neurotrophic and neurogenic molecule. Similar effects have been described for enriched environment (EE). Moreover, both VEGF and EE have been related to improved spatial memory. Our aim was to investigate the neurovascular and […]

Experience Mediated Development of the Visual Cortex Vascularization

The brain is highly vascularised, containing a very intricate network of capillaries (nearly

every brain cell is located within 20 μm of a capillary). The endothelial cells that form the
brain capillaries are sealed together by tight junctions, and have no fenestrations and very
low pinocytosis. This combination of features creates the BBB, which is both a physical […]

Effect of intracortical vascular endothelial growth factor infusion and blockade during the critical period in the rat visual cortex

VEGF is the major angiogenic and vascular permeability factor in health and disease. Vascular development depends on function, and in sensory areas is experience-dependent. Our aim was to investigate, qualitatively and quantitatively, the effects of intracortical infusion and neutralisation of VEGF during the first days of the critical visual period, when peak levels of endogenous […]

Angiogenic Signalling Pathways Altered in Gliomas: Selection Mechanisms for More Aggressive Neoplastic Subpopulations with Invasive Phenotype

The angiogenesis process is a key event for glioma survival, malignancy and growth. The start of angiogenesis is mediated by a cascade of intratumoural events: alteration of the microvasculature network; a hypoxic microenvironment; adaptation of neoplastic cells and synthesis of pro-angiogenic factors. Due to a chaotic blood flow, a consequence of an aberrant microvasculature, tissue […]

Enriched and Deprived Sensory Experience Induces Structural Changes and Rewires Connectivity during the Postnatal Development of the Brain

During postnatal development, sensory experience modulates cortical development, inducing numerous changes in all of the components of the cortex. Most of the cortical changes thus induced occur during the critical period, when the functional and structural properties of cortical neurons are particularly susceptible to alterations. Although the time course for experience-mediated sensory development is specific […]

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Other Angioglioneurins: Key Molecules in Brain Development and Restoration

Angioneurins are a family of molecules that include vascular growth factors such as VEGF, neurotrophins such as BDNF, IGF-I, and Erythropoietin, among others. They affect both neural and vascular processes. Due to the fact that all of them act over glia, we propose the term angioglioneurins to name them. They play a key role in […]

Broad characterization of endogenous peptides in the tree shrew visual system

Endogenous neuropeptides, acting as neurotransmitters or hormones in the brain, carry out important functions including neural plasticity, metabolism and angiogenesis. Previous neuropeptide studies have focused on peptide-rich brain regions such as the striatum or hypothalamus. Here we present an investigation of peptides in the visual system, composed of brain regions that are generally less rich […]

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor: Adaptive changes in the neuroglialvascular unit

Brain postnatal development is modulated by adaptation and experience. Experience-mediated changes increase neuronal activity leading to increased metabolic demands that involve adaptive changes including ones at the microvascular network. Therefore, vascular environment plays a key role in central nervous system (CNS) development and function in […]

Endogenous experimental glioma model, links between glioma stem cells and angiogenesis.

Glioblastomas (GBM) are the most malignant solid tumours (grade IV) of CNS. They are glial lineage neoplasias with a high proliferative and invasive capacity, reaching to occupy an entire lobe of the brain (Kleihues et al., 2007). According with their genesis, they can be differentiated between primary and secondary glioblastoma.
The primary is the […]