Los usos y abusos de la “vulnerabilidad” en el asilo de la UE y la protección de refugiados: ¿Proteger a las mujeres o reducir la autonomía?

Jane Freedman

Resumen


El concepto de vulnerabilidad se ha convertido en el centro de la legislación y la política europeas de asilo y refugio en los últimos años. La adopción de medidas especiales diseñadas para ofrecer una mayor protección a los solicitantes de asilo vulnerables puede considerarse un paso positivo. Ahora bien, la forma en que se ha definido la vulnerabilidad es cuestionable. Con demasiada frecuencia, la vulnerabilidad se reduce a una categorización simplista y esencializada, que también es altamente generizada y racializada. Las mujeres son clasificadas como "vulnerables" a priori, sin una consideración real de las causas estructurales y contextuales de esta vulnerabilidad. Si bien ser clasificado como "vulnerable" puede aumentar las posibilidades de protección dentro de los sistemas de asilo y refugio de la UE, los impactos en quienes son clasificados como vulnerables pueden ser sentidos como formas de violencia simbólica que reducen la agencia y la autonomía. En base a entrevistas con solicitantes de asilo y refugiados, así como en un análisis de las recientes directivas de asilo de la UE, este artículo propone repensar los usos de la vulnerabilidad en las políticas de asilo de la UE para proporcionar una mejor protección al tiempo que reconozcan la agencia y la autonomía de los solicitantes de asilo y de los refugiados.

Palabras clave


género; vulnerabilidad; asilo; Europa

Referencias


Allsopp, J. (2017). Aggressor, Victim, Soldier, Dad: Intersecting Masculinities in the European ‘Refugee Crisis’. In J. Freedman, Z. Kivilcim and N. Ozgur Baklacioglu (Eds.). A Gendered Approach to the Syrian Refugee Crisis (pp. 155-175). London: Routledge.

Andersson, R. (2016). Europe’s failed “fight” against irregular migration: ethnographic notes on a counterproductive industry. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 42(7), 1055-1075.

Clark, C. (2007). Understanding vulnerability: from categories to experiences of Congolese young people in Uganda. Children and Society, 21(4), 284-296.

Crawley, H., and Skleparis, D. (2017). Refugees, migrants, neither, both: categorical fetishism and the politics of bounding in Europe’s ‘migration crisis’. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 44(1), 48-64.

ECRE (2017). The Concept of Vulnerability in European Asylum Procedures. Brussels: ECRE.

Enloe, C. (1990). Bananas, Beaches, Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics. California: University of Berkeley Press.

Fineman, M. A. (2008). The Vulnerable Subject: Anchoring Equality in the Human Condition. Yale Journal of Law and Feminism, 20(1). Available at: https://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/yjlf/vol20/iss1/2. Last visit 14/10/2018.

Freedman, J. (2012). Analysing the Gendered Insecurities of Migration: A Case Study of Female Sub-Saharan African Migrants in Morocco. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 14(1) 36-55.

Freedman, J. (2015). Gendering the International Asylum and Refugee Debate. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Freedman, J. (2016). Engendering Security at the Borders of Europe: Women Migrants and the Mediterranean ‘Crisis’. Journal of Refugee Studies, 29(4), 568-582.

Freedman, J., Kivilcim, Z., and Ozgur Baklacioglu, N. (2017). A Gendered Approach to the Syrian Refugee Crisis. London: Routledge.

Gilbert, G. (2015). Why Europe Does Not Have a Refugee Crisis. Journal of Refugee Law, 27(4), 531-535.

Gilson, E. C. (2016). Vulnerability and Victimization: Rethinking Key Concepts in Feminist Discourses on Sexual Violence. Signs : Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 42(1), 71-98.

Herz, M. (2018). Becoming a possible threat: masculinity, culture and questioning among unaccompanied young men in Sweden. Identities, DOI:10.1080/1070289X.2018.1441692

Hollander, J. (2001). Vulnerability and Dangerousness: The Construction of Gender through Conversation about Violence. Gender and Society, 15(1), 83-109.

Hunt, L. (2008). Women asylum seekers and refugees: opportunities, constraints and the role of agency. Social Policy and Society, 7(3), 281-292.

Kallius, A., Monterescu, D., and Rajaram, P. K. (2016). Immobilizing Mobility: Border ethnography, illiberal democracy, and the politics of the “refugee crisis” in Hungary. American Ethnologist, 43(1), 1-13.

Lovertt, A., Whelan, C., and Rendon, R. (2017). The Reality of the EU-Turkey Statement: How Greece has become a testing ground for policies that erode protection for refugees. Oxford: Oxfam.

Luna, F. (2009). Elucidating the concept of vulnerability: layers not labels. International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics, 2(1), 121-139.

Mackenzie, C. (2014). The Importance of Relational Autonomy and Capabilities for an Ethics of Vulnerability. In C. Mackenzie, W. Rogers and S. Dodds (Eds). Vulnerability: New Essays in Ethics and Feminist Philosophy (pp. 33-60). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Marchand, M. (2008). The Violence of Development and the Migration/Insecurities Nexus: Labour Migration in a North American Context. Third World Quarterly, 29(7), 1375-1388.

Malkki, L. (1996), Speechless Emissaries: Refugees, Humanitarianism and Dehistoricization. Cultural Anthropology, 11(3), 377-404.

Moritz, A. (2012). Supporting refugee women’s strategies for coping with challenges during maternity in resettlement: Shifting the focus from vulnerability to agency. Revista Iberoamericana de Salud y Ciudadania, 1(1), 119-156.

Olivius, E. (2016). Constructing Humanitarian Selves and Refugee Others. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 18(2), 270-290.

Peroni, L., and Timmer, A. (2013). Vulnerable groups: the promise of an emerging concept in European Human rights Convention Law. International Journal of Constitutional Law, 11(4), 1056-1085.

Pickering, S., and Cochrane, B. (2012). Irregular Border-Crossing Deaths and Gender: Where, How and Why Women Die Crossing Borders. Theoretical Criminology, 17(1), 27-48.

Refugees International (2017). “Like a Prison”: Asylum Seekers Confined to the Greek Islands. Washington: Refugees International.

Singer, D. (2014). Falling at Each Hurdle: Assessing the Credibility of Women’s Asylum Claims in Europe. In E. Arbel, C. Dauvergne and J. Millbank (Eds). Gender in Refugee Law: From the Margins to the Centre (pp. 98-115). Abingdon: Routledge.

UNHCR (1991). Guidelines on the Protection of Refugee Women. Geneva: UNHCR.

UNHCR (1995). Sexual Violence against Refugees: Guidelines on Prevention and Response. Geneva: UNHCR.

UNHCR (2003). Sexual and Gender-Based Violence against Refugees, Returnees and Internally Displaced People: Guidelines for Prevention and Response. Geneva: UNHCR

UNHCR (2006). Guidelines on International Protection: The Application of Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and/or 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees to Victims of Trafficking and Persons at Risk of Being Trafficked. Geneva: UNHCR.

Ziarek, E.P. (2013). Feminist Reflections on Vulnerability: Disrespect, Obligation, Action. SubStance, 42(3): 67-84.






Copyright (c) 2019 Papeles del CEIC. International Journal on Collective Identity Research

Papeles del CEIC

ISSN: 1695-6494

Centro de Estudios sobre la Identidad Colectiva

www.identidadcolectiva.es

Departamento de Sociología 2

Facultad de Ciencias Sociales - Universidad del País Vasco

Barrio Sarriena, s/n C.P.:48940 Leioa (Bizkaia). Tel.: +0034 946015132

correo-e