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Modelling and control of storage systems and associated converters

General details of the subject

Face-to-face degree course

Description and contextualization of the subject

The importance of energy storage systems is growing significantly in Europe for both grid and mobility applications. There are many companies and research centers in Europe involved in researching, developing, manufacturing, or using energy storage systems, and especially in the Basque Country, like Iberdrola, EDF, CAF, Irizar, Jema Energy, Siemens, Ingeteam, Cegasa, Ikerlan Cidetec or CIC energiGUNE.

This course, divided in a theory and a laboratory practical part, introduces the main energy storage technologies, their application in the different fields (grid, micro-grids or e-mobility), their system topologies, and their modelling and control.

As an introduction to the topic, in the last years the integration of Energy Storage Systems (ESSs) into the grid, smart-grids and e-mobility has gained the market interest. The ESS particularity of allowing to provide or absorb energy, has allowed to develop new management and control services into the electric grid, in particular to a Smart Grid, such as frequency regulation, peak-shaving, injection of reactive power, voltage regulation and the integration of renewable energy sources among others.

An ESS cannot be managed without an inverter/converter. However, this is a positive point, since most of the electric systems in a microgrid or e-mobility powertrain have an inverter/converter too. The correct management of the system inverters/converters by means of energy management strategies (EMS) algorithms allows to provide the abovementioned new services.

The course starts with a description of the management and control services that can be provided with an ESS to the electric grid, in particular to a Smart Grid.

For each service, the correct ESS has to be selected. For the correct selection, different energy storage technologies are introduced, and an analysis of the basic operating principle of each one is performed. Their most important technical characteristics are introduced, including energy and power capacity, specific energy and power, efficiency, and cycle life. Finally, the cost of the different ESS technologies is also analyzed and the total cost of an energy storage system is briefly introduced.

Some of the most used ESS are thoroughly analyzed. Their dynamic, mechanic or electric models are presented, as well as the most important power conversion topologies and their classical control algorithms. The integration and management of inverters/converters in a micro-grid with ESS is analyzed in simulations.

In the event that the sanitary conditions prevent the realization of a teaching activity and / or face-to-face evaluation, a non-face-to-face modality will be activated of which the students will be informed promptly.

Teaching staff

NameInstitutionCategoryDoctorTeaching profileAreaE-mail
CORTAJARENA ECHEVERRIA, JOSE ANTONIOUniversity of the Basque CountryProfesorado Titular De UniversidadDoctorNot bilingualElectronic


Students should have updated knowledge about the advanced working techniques and methodologies related to the field of Smartgrids and distributed generation, particularly from the point of view of their control. 10.0 %
Establishing dynamic models of the different components of Smartgrids, particularly different Distributed Generation units. 25.0 %
Design of control laws locally for the different components of Smartgrids, particularly Distributed Generation units. 25.0 %
Evaluating and validating models and drivers of different components of Smartgrids, through simulations and experimental testing, using different computing and prototyping tools. 20.0 %
Students should be able to communicate about the projects carried out working in multidisciplinary and multilingual national and international teams of professionals and researchers operating in the field of Smartgrids. 10.0 %
Students should be trained to understand and analyse technical documents, standards and scientific articles on the topic of the Master, and to apply them in the creation of work and research related to the field of Smartgrids. 10.0 %

Study types

TypeFace-to-face hoursNon face-to-face hoursTotal hours
Applied classroom-based groups101525
Applied computer-based groups101020

Training activities

NameHoursPercentage of classroom teaching
Exercises25.040 %
Expositive classes12.0100 %
Solving practical cases20.047 %
Systematised study18.00 %

Assessment systems

NameMinimum weightingMaximum weighting
Practical tasks10.0 % 40.0 %
Questions to discuss5.0 % 20.0 %
Written examination30.0 % 70.0 %

Learning outcomes of the subject

At the end of the course, the students will be able to:

• Understand the different energy storage systems and the advantages and disadvantages of each technology. Be able to evaluate which of them will be the most appropriate depending on the grid connected application, justifying the decision in a rigorous way.

• Identify power converter topologies that can be used to control the storage system. Apply the modeling techniques of both the storage system and the converter to analyze their operation.

• Be able to design control methods for the management of storage systems using power converters, simulate its operation at the level of simulations and clearly understand the results.

Ordinary call: orientations and renunciation

Class attendance and participation. Professors will be expecting student participation in class. Class attendance and class participation will be accounted for the final grade.

Theory part. The professor will assign a paper at the beginning of the semester. The students, in teams or individually, will work on the paper that will be submitted at the end of the semester. The paper will serve to prove the students have understood the topics presented during the semester.

Lab simulation part. Perform simulations and models using MATLAB. The methodology for getting the results and the obtained results will be collected in a paper.

The professor will assign a project to the student that will be developed in the laboratory. The elaboration process and the results will be used to evaluate the subject.

The grade with be the sum of Class Attendance and Participation (20%), Theory Part (40%) and Lab simulation part (40%).

In order to pass you must obtain at least 5 points out of 10 in both the theory part and the practical part.


According to article 8 of the Regulations, regulating the assessment of students in the official degrees, the students shall have the right to be evaluated by means of the FINAL EVALUATION SYSTEM, independently of the fact that has or has not participated in the CONTINUOUS EVALUATION SYSTEM. In order to do so, students must present the following information written to the teacher in charge of the subject the renunciation of the CONTINUOUS EVALUATION within a period of 9 weeks from the beginning of the term. In this case, the student will be assessed with a single final exam. This final exam will consist on an oral exam related to the skills that the students have to acquire in the subject.


According to article 12 of the Regulations, regulating the assessment of students in the official degrees, in the case of CONTINUOUS EVALUATION, the student may renounce the call for proposals within a period which, as a minimum, will be up to one month before the end of the teaching period of the corresponding subject. This waiver must be submitted in writing to the teacher responsible for the subject. In the case of FINAL EVALUATION, a no presentation to the official examination will result in the automatic waiver of the corresponding call. Renunciation of the call will result in the qualification of not presented.

Extraordinary call: orientations and renunciation

The criteria to pass each activity as the weighting of the grade will be the same as in the ordinary call.


A no presentation to the official examination will result in the automatic waiver of the corresponding call. Renunciation of the call will result in the qualification of not presented.


Topic 1- Introduction to the storage systems and their use to provide grid services

Topic 2- Analysis and comparison of different energy storage technologies

Topic 3- Analysis of Li-ion technology

PW1- Li-ion Laboratory + Li-ion Model

Topic 4- Analysis of ultracapacitor technology

PW2 - Sizing a Battery System

Topic 5- Analysis of flywheel technology

PW3 - Ultracapacitor


Compulsory materials

Access to the material of the subject through Moodle:

Basic bibliography

A. Akhil, “DOE/EPRI electricity storage handbook in collaboration with NRECA”, Sandia National Laboratories, 2013.

D. W. Gao, “Energy storage for sustainable microgrid”, Elsevier, 2015.

F. Díaz-González, “Energy Storage in Power Systems”, John Wiley & Sons, 2016.

A. Ter-Gazarian, “Energy Storage for Power Systems”, IET, 2011.

P. T. Moseley, “Electrochemical Energy Storage for Renewable Sources and Grid Balancing”, Elsevier, 2015.

C. Menictas, “Advances in Batteries for Medium and Large-Scale Energy Storage: Types and Applications”, Elsevier, 2014.

T. B. Reddy, “Linden’s handbook of batteries”, McGraw-Hill, 2011.

J. M. Miller, “Ultracapacitor applications”, IET, 2011.

S. Chakraborty,, “Power Electronics for Renewable and Distributed Energy Systems: A Sourcebook of Topologies, Control and Integration”, Springer Science & Business Media, 2013.

S. Schoenung, “Energy storage systems cost update”, Sandia National Laboratories, 2011.

In-depth bibliography

“Electrical energy storage: technology overview and applications”, CSIRO, 2015.

“Grid energy storage,” US Department of energy, 2013.

A. B. Gallo, “Energy storage in the energy transition context: A technology review”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 65, pp. 800–822, 2016.

M. Aneke, “Energy storage technologies and real life applications – A state of the art review”, Applied Energy, vol. 179, pp. 350–377, 2016.

C. K. Dyer, “Encyclopedia of Electrochemical Power Sources”, Newnes, 2013.

A. Franco, “Rechargeable Lithium Batteries: From Fundamentals to Applications”, Elsevier, 2015.

P. J. Grbovic, “Ultra-capacitors in power conversion systems: applications, analysis and design from theory and practice”, IEEE Press/ Wiley, 2014.

A. Yu, “Electrochemical supercapacitors for energy storage and delivery: fundamentals and applications”, CRC Press, 2013.

B. Bolund, “Flywheel energy and power storage systems,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 235–258, 2007.

G. O. Suvire, “Active power control of a flywheel energy storage system for wind energy applications,” IET Renewable Power Generation, vol. 6, no. 1, 2012.


IEEE Energy Conversion

IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

IEEE Transactions on Smart Grids

IET Renewable Power Generation

Energy Conversion and Management

Renewable Energy

Applied Energy

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews


Battery Course from Columbia University (Dr. Gregory L. Plett):

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