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Dynamic modelling of distributed generation sources

General details of the subject

Face-to-face degree course

Description and contextualization of the subject

Distributed generation, also called on-site generation or decentralized generation, is the term for generation of electricity from sources that are near the point of consumption, as opposed to centralized generation sources such as large utility-owned power plants.

Common distributed generation systems (DGS) include: Solar photovoltaic panels, small wind turbines, natural gas or hydrogen-fired fuel cells, combined heat and power (CHP) systems, biomass combustion, internal combustion (IC) small systems, gas microturbines, micro hydropower and marine energy.

Various technical and economic issues occur in the integration of these resources into a grid. Technical problems arise in the areas of power quality, voltage stability, harmonics, reliability, protection, and control. In order to face all these problems, good knowledge and modeling of DGSs for a subsequent management and control is a key matter.

In this subject some of the most common DGSs will be studied in order to develop the models that will allow to study the performance of them under dynamic situations.

In the event that the sanitary conditions prevent the realization of a teaching activity and / or face-to-face evaluation, a non-face-to-face modality will be activated of which the students will be informed promptly.

Teaching staff

NameInstitutionCategoryDoctorTeaching profileAreaE-mail
ALBIZU FLOREZ, IGORUniversity of the Basque CountryProfesorado Titular De UniversidadDoctorBilingualElectrical
UGARTEMENDIA DE LA IGLESIA, JUAN JOSEUniversity of the Basque CountryProfesorado Colaborador De Escuela UniversitariaDoctorBilingualElectrical


Students should have updated knowledge about the advanced working techniques and methodologies related to the field of Smartgrids and distributed generation, particularly from the point of view of their control. 5.0 %
Awareness and application of the concepts and specifications of Smartgrids, their topologies, constituent components and basic dimensioning. 5.0 %
Establishing dynamic models of the different components of Smartgrids, particularly different Distributed Generation units. 40.0 %
Design of control laws locally for the different components of Smartgrids, particularly Distributed Generation units. 5.0 %
Evaluating and validating models and drivers of different components of Smartgrids, through simulations and experimental testing, using different computing and prototyping tools. 30.0 %
Students should be able to communicate about the projects carried out working in multidisciplinary and multilingual national and international teams of professionals and researchers operating in the field of Smartgrids. 10.0 %
Students should be trained to understand and analyse technical documents, standards and scientific articles on the topic of the Master, and to apply them in the creation of work and research related to the field of Smartgrids. 5.0 %

Study types

TypeFace-to-face hoursNon face-to-face hoursTotal hours
Applied classroom-based groups101525
Applied computer-based groups101525

Training activities

NameHoursPercentage of classroom teaching
Drawing up reports and presentations4.00 %
Exercises25.040 %
Expositive classes10.0100 %
Presentation of projects1.0100 %
Solving practical cases20.047 %
Systematised study15.00 %

Assessment systems

NameMinimum weightingMaximum weighting
Practical tasks10.0 % 40.0 %
Presentations0.0 % 20.0 %
Questions to discuss5.0 % 20.0 %
Written examination30.0 % 70.0 %

Ordinary call: orientations and renunciation


The evaluation is of ongoing type. It is why it is compulsory to be present in class. The subject is assessed from 3 different activities, according to this weighting:

- Individual exercises and tasks during the course: 30%

- Reports of applied laboratory practices: 20%

- Final written exam: 50%

During the course, students must do individual exercises, tasks and reports. This will allow a follow-up of the learning process of the students and a continuous evaluation. Students who do not submit the exercises, tasks and reports will be evaluated with a zero in these sections.

The exam of the ordinary call will count for 50% of the final mark. In order for the average to be made with the remaining parts, it will be necessary to obtain a minimum of 4 in this exam.

Failure to appear at the final assessment on the official date of the ordinary call will automatically result in the waiver of that call, which will lead to the grade of Not Presented.

A minimum mark of 5 is required to pass the course.


According to article 8 of the Regulations, regulating the assessment of students in the official degrees, the students shall have the right to be evaluated by means of the FINAL EVALUATION SYSTEM, independently of the fact that has or has not participated in the CONTINUOUS EVALUATION SYSTEM. In order to do so, students must present the following information written to the teacher in charge of the subject the renunciation of the CONTINUOUS EVALUATION within a period of 9 weeks from the beginning of the term. In this case, the student will be assessed with a single final exam. This final exam will consist on an oral exam related to the skills that the students have to acquire in the subject.


According to article 12 of the Regulations, regulating the assessment of students in the official degrees, in the case of CONTINUOUS EVALUATION, the student may renounce the call for proposals within a period which, as a minimum, will be up to one month before the end of the teaching period of the corresponding subject. This waiver must be submitted in writing to the teacher responsible for the subject. In the case of FINAL EVALUATION, a no presentation to the official examination will result in the automatic waiver of the corresponding call. Renunciation of the call will result in the qualification of not presented.

Extraordinary call: orientations and renunciation

The criteria and weighting of this call will be the same as that of the ordinary call.


A no presentation to the official examination will result in the automatic waiver of the corresponding call. Renunciation of the call will result in the qualification of not presented.


Modelado dinámico, testeo simulado y experimental de placas fotovoltaicas.

Modelado dinámico, testeo simulado y experimental de pilas de combustible.

Modelado dinámico y simulación del sistema micro-hidráulico.

Modelado dinámico, testeo simulado y experimental del grupo diésel-alternador.

Modelado dinámico, simulación y ensayos experimentales de energías marinas.


Compulsory materials

Documentación de la página web de la asignatura. Accesible en:

Basic bibliography

Photovoltaic Modeling. Power Analitics Corporation, San Diego: 2011.

R. A. Messenger, J. Ventre. Photovoltaic Systems Engineering (3rd edition). CRC Press, New York: 2010.

M. H. Nehrir, C. Wang. Fuel cells: distributed generation applications. Ed. John Wiley & sons, Ltd, Chichester: 2009.

E. de Jaeger et al. Hydraulic turbine and turbine control models for system dynamic studies. Trans. on Power Systems, vol 7, no 1, 1992

L. A. Lucero Tenorio. Hydro turbine and governor modelling: electric-hydraulic interaction. Norwegian University os Science and Technology, Trondheim: 2010.

Diesel Generator Set, MPLS9S-1 (

D. O'Sullivan, D. Mollaghan, A.Blavette and R.Alcorn (2010). Dynamic characteristics of wave and tidal energy converters & a recommended structure for development of a generic model for grid connection, a report prepared by HMRC-UCC for the OES-IA Annex III. [Online], Available:

Ricci, P., Lopez, J., Santos, M., Villate, J. L., Ruiz-Minguela, P., Salcedo, F., and O.Falcão, A. F. d., Control Strategies for a simple Point-Absorber Connected to a Hydraulic Power Take-off, in European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference, 2009.

In-depth bibliography

T. Markvart, L. Castañer. Practical handbook of photovoltaics: fundamentals and applications. Ed. Elsevier, Oxford: 2003.

L. Castañer, S. Silvestre. Modelling Photovoltaic Systems using Pspice. Ed. John Wiley & sons, Ltd, Chichester: 2002.

G. D.J. Harper. Fuel cell projects for the evil genius. Ed. Mc Graw Hill, New York: 2008.

K. Z. Yao et. al. A review of mathematical models for hydrogen and direct methanol polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Fuel Cells, vol. 4, no. 1-2, pp. 3-29, Weinheim: 2004.

RETScreen International (Clean energy decision support centre). Small hydro project analisys chapter. Minister od Natural Resources of Canada: 2001-2004.

H. Fang et al. Basic Modeling and Simulation Tool for Analysis of Hydraulic Transients in Hydroelectric Power Plants. Trans. on energy Conversion, vol 23, no 3, pp. 834-841, 2008.

C. Li, J. Zhou. Parameters identification of hydraulic turbine governing system using improved gravitational search algorithm. Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 52, pp. 374-381, 2011.

D. Andrews. National Grid's use of emergency diesel standby generators in dealing with grid intermittency, Open Iniversity Conference on Intermittency, 2006.

Falnes J. A review of wave-energy extraction. Marine Structures, 2007

Cummins, WE. The Impulse Response Function and Ship Motions. Schiffstechnik, vol 9, pp. 101-109, 1962.


Renewable Energy (Elsevier)

Applied Energy (Elsevier)

Photovoltaics Bulletin (Elsevier)

Fuel Cells Bulletin (Elsevier)

IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics

IET Renewable Power Generation

IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

Links (Renewable Energy Magazine) (European Photovoltaic Industry Association)

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