# 25980 - Fundamentals of Electrical Technology

## DESCRIPTION & CONTEXTUALISATION OF THE SUBJECT

CONTEXTUALISATION OF THE SUBJECT

The Electric Technology, in general terms, is a technical discipline that studies the applications of electricity.

The disciplinary field comprises the study of electric and electromagnetic phenomena from the perspective of the practical

use of electricity which includes three main areas of knowledge and experience:

1.- Scientific concepts and laws that explain the functionality and behavior of different apparatus, receptors and electric

machines, with regard to the physical phenomena that take place in them.

2.- Laws, theorems, principles and analysis techniques, calculus and prediction of behavior of electric and electronic

circuits.

3.- Elements used to mount and construct circuits, apparatus and electric machines: representation, disposition,

normalization, connections and characteristics.

Due to the fact that electric applications are abundantly used in any activity of the domestic, services and industrial sectors

the contents must respond to a rigorous list of concepts and procedures which are the root of the 'think and act' of the

electro technician, whatever the working field: production, transport, transformation, consume (heating, cooling, lighting,

traction-force), automatics, information treatment and electrical installations.

The comprehension and correct solving of the problems in Electrical Technology Fundamentals will allow the student to

face more complex problems within the Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering and related subjects.

That's why this subject can be considered a functional tool that will allow obtaining some of the basic competencies

considered in this Engineering Degree.

PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE:

The expressed list order does not require teaching order or acquisition order of the knowledge, but must be understood as

the list of knowledge the student should have when passing the corresponding subjects.

Mathematics:

1.- Temporal sinusoidal functions.

a) Maximum value, period, frequency.

b) Same time origin for all functions. Transform sine to cosine and vice versa.

c) Advance and delay between functions.

2.- Derivation and integration

3.- Operation with complex numbers.

4.- Matrix calculus. Cramer. Solve linear equations of real and complex coefficients.

Physics:

1.- Energy conservation principle.

2.- Electric Charge. Electric field. Coulomb's Law. Dielectric materials. Capacity.

3.- Electric current. Voltage. Potential difference. Power and energy according to electric variables.

4.- Magnetic field and flux.

5.- Laplace's Law.

6.- Lorentz's Law.

7.- Faraday-Lenz's Law.

8.- Magnetic materials. Magnetic Field Intensity.

9.- Ampère’s Law.

## COMPETENCIES/LEARNING RESULTS FOR THE SUBJECT

To know and understand the principles of the electric circuit and machine theory in order to use them during the analysis

and solving of electrical circuits.

To use the strategies of the scientific methodology during the resolution of problems related to the electrical circuits and

machines: qualitative analysis, hypothesis setting out, obtaining solutions and analysis of results using theorems and

fundamental techniques from electrical circuits and machines theory.

To communicate adequately the basic principles and procedures of the electrical circuits and machines and the results and conclusions obtained, using the electrotechnical language (written, mathematical and graphical).

To team-work effectively in lab sessions, integration abilities and knowledge to mount simple electrical sets.

## THEORETICAL/PRACTICAL CONTENT

1st Term

Topic 1: Ideal components in circuit theory. Kirchhoff's Laws.

Resistance. Inductance. Capacity. Short-circuit and open circuit. Ideal & real components. Definitions. Kirchhoff's Laws.

Energy conservation principle.

Topic 2: Direct current in steady state

Direct current. Behavior of ideal elements under direct current and steady state. Element associations: resistances,

voltage sources and current sources. Voltage division. Current division.

Topic 3: Network theorems and practical techniques for circuit analysis

Linearity and superposition. Real sources. Equivalence and transformation of sources. Mesh analysis. Nodal analysis.

Millman's theorem. Thévenin's theorem. Norton's theorem. Maximum power transfer theorem.

Topic 4: One-phase alternating current

One-phase alternating voltage and current. Phasor concept. Resistance, reactance and impedance in alternate current.

Impedance association. Generalization of network theorems.

Topic 5: Power in one-phase systems

Power expressions. Mean power in circuit elements: resistance, coil and capacitor. Maximum power transfer theorem.

Active, reactive, apparent and complex power. Power factor. Power factor improvement.

Topic 6: Three-phase alternating current

Generation. Star connection of generators. Delta connection of generators. Three-phase charge. Kennelly's theorem or

star-delta transformation. Balanced three-phase system. Power.

Topic 7: Introduction to Electric Power Systems. Electrical calculus of Electric Lines.

Importance and interest of electric energy. General description of a electric power system. Low Voltage Electro technical

Regulation (REBT). Section definition for LV line conductors in AC according to REBT.

Topic 8: Electric protection in Low Voltage installations

Hazards related to electric current. Safety in case of electric risk. The 5 golden rules. Neutral and ground connection

systems. Protection devices I: description. Protection devices II: protection, overloads; short-circuits; selectivity; Line to

ground fault current and leakage current.

Lab sessions:

Session 0: Preventing electrical risk. Description and use of the lab desk.

Session 1: Basic measuring in direct current steady state.

Topics 1-3: Resistances, multimeter as voltmeter, electric source, board, Ohm's Law, Kirchhoff's Laws, behavior of R, L

and C elements under steady state DC.

Session 2: Verifying the properties of linear circuits.

Topics 1-3: Homogeneity principle, superposition principle. Equivalent circuits of Thévenin and Norton. Maximum power

transfer theorem.

Session 3: Alternating current one-phase circuit analysis.

Topic 4:

Oscilloscope, resistive circuit, RL circuit, RC circuit.

Session 4: Power in one-phase AC systems.

Topic 5

Power triangle. Improving the power factor. Electric quality analyzer (FLUKE)

Session 5: Alternating current three-phase circuits analysis.

Topic 6.

Three-phase charge: Y, Delta. Multimeter. Electric quality analyzer (FLUKE).

Session 6: Electric protections.

Topics 7 and 8.

Visit to the electric installation in Faculty of Engineering Gipuzkoa.

2nd Term

Topic 9: Magnetic circuits.

Materials magnetic performance. Definition and types of magnetic circuits. Hopkinson’s Law. Analogies and

differences between electrical and magnetic circuits. Behavior of electrical circuits according to the type of excitation.

Resolution of magnetic circuits. Leakage flux. Real inductor: equivalent circuit.

Topic 10: Transformer.

Introduction. The ideal Transformer. Nominal characteristics of the transformer. Real transformer. Internal voltage drop of

a transformer. Voltage regulation. Short circuit current. Relative short-circuit voltage. Transformer performance. Threephase

transformers. Metering transformers.

Topic 11: Induction machine.

Introduction. Construction considerations. Operating principle. Equivalent circuits. Losses and power-flow diagram.

Rotation torque. Startup of asynchronous motors.

Topic 12: DC machine.

Introduction. Construction considerations. Principle of operation and excitation modes. Armature reaction. Direct current

generators. Service characteristics.

## METHODS

The subject is taught by means of teachers' explanations, both in lectures and practical classroom work sessions. The

contents mentioned in this document will be followed based on the bibliography. Teachers will be available for

clarifications on tutorial sessions according to the time-table published on the center’s official web.

In lectures the programmed topics will be explained and developed. There will be theory descriptions with activities aimed

to promote participation, discussion and critical analysis from students.

In practical class sessions there will be proposed and solved exercises related to the topic been studied. The students will

be required to solve, either in teams or individually, the indicated problems.

In lab sessions, students will perform the required activities and will have to submit the corresponding assessment of the

activity with operations and adequate critical considerations.

The students will study in an autonomous way in order to assimilate and keep the concepts and solve the proposed

exercises.

The students will have in eGela, the virtual platform for teaching, the materials, calendar, references, exercises and lab

session guides.

## TYPES OF TEACHING

Type of teaching | M | S | GA | GL | GO |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Classroom hours | 45 | 30 | 15 | ||

Hours of study outside the classroom | 60 | 60 | 15 |

**Legend**: **M:** Lecture **S: **Seminario **GA: **Pract.Class.Work **GL: **Pract.Lab work **GO:** Pract.computer wo

**GCL: **Clinical Practice **TA: **Workshop **TI: **Ind. workshop **GCA:** Field workshop

## ASSESSMENT SYSTEMS

- Continuous assessment system

- Final assessment system

## TOOLS USED & GRADING PERCENTAGES

- Extended written exam 60%

- Practical work (exercises, case studies & problems set) 20%

- Short exams 20%

## ORDINARY EXAM CALL: GUIDELINES & DECLINING TO SIT

DECIDING THE ASSESSMENT SYSTEM:

The assessment system by default will be the continuous assessment system (A). The student who wishes to use the

right to be assessed by a final assessment system (B) must present a written document to the teacher responsible of the subject declining to the continuous assessment system (with registered entrance in center). To do so, the student will

have a deadline of 18 weeks since the beginning of the academic year (according to Chap. II, art. 8 of the assessment

rules document). Registering this document implies the loss of any score obtained previously in the continuous

assessment system: like, for instance, lab sessions and short exams.

A) CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT SYSTEM

A.1) The weight of each assessment tool for the final score is as follows:

-Extended written exams: 60%

-1st Term: 33.3%

-2nd Term: 26.7%

-Laboratory: 20% (1st term)

-Short exams (questions, problems, etc.): 20%

-1st Term: 13.3%

-2nd Term: 6.7%

A.2) Declining to sit: not attending to the extended written exam in ordinary exam call will imply declining to sit the

mentioned call. In this case the grade will be: Non Attendance.

A.3) Description of assessment tools:

- Extended written exams: They will ask for theory and exercises. They will be held on the date for exam call.

- January: exam that allows releasing the topics of the 1st term.

- May: exam that allows releasing the topics of the 1st term or/and the 2nd term.

- Laboratory: at the end of each lab session an individual assessment will be made.

- Short exams: during the academic year short exams will be held (out of subject's timetable). Dates will be told in

advance.

A.4) Conditions to pass the course and to release topics from exam calls:

*To release the topics of one term the student must obtain 4 or more out of 10 in the respective extended written exam.

The release will be kept for both the ordinary and the extraordinary exam call.

*The students not attending the lab sessions or the short exams will score 0 out of 10 in these assessment tools.

*The final grade will be obtained according to A.1) only when both the grades of the extended written exams for the 1st

and 2nd term are of 4 or more out of 10. Otherwise, the final grade will be 4 or less out of 10.

*To pass the course the final grade must be of 5 or more out of 10.

B) FINAL ASSESSMENT SYSTEM

B.1) The weight of each assessment tool for the final score is as follows:

-Extended written exams: 80%

-1st Term: 46.7%

-2nd Term: 33.3%

-Laboratory exam: 20%

B.2) Declining to sit: not attending to the extended written exam in ordinary exam call will imply declining to sit the

mentioned call. In this case the grade will be: Non Attendance.

B.3) Description of assessment tools:

- Extended written exams: One for each term. It will ask for theory and exercises. It will be held on the date for

ordinary exam call.

- Laboratory exam: laboratory practical skills assessment. It will be held on the date for ordinary exam call.

B.4) Conditions to pass the course and to release topics from exam calls:

*In this assessment method there is no possibility to release topics from any term from one exam call to another.

*The students not attending the lab exam will score 0 out of 10 in this assessment tool.

*The final grade will be obtained according to B.1) only when both the grades of the extended written exams for the 1st

and 2nd term are of 4 or more out of 10. Otherwise, the final grade will be 4 or less out of 10.

*To pass the course the final grade must be of 5 or more out of 10.

## EXTRAORDINARY EXAM CALL: GUIDELINES & DECLINING TO SIT

DECIDING THE ASSESSMENT SYSTEM:

The assessment system in the extraordinary exam call will be the one decided by the student for the ordinary exam call.

A) CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT SYSTEM

A.1) The weight of each assessment tool for the final score will be the most profitable for the student between the following

two options:

OPTION A.1a)

-Extended written exams: 60%:

-1st Term: 33.3%

-2nd Term: 26.7%

-Laboratory: 20%

-Short exams (questions, problems, etc.): 20%

-1st Term: 13.3%

-2nd Term: 6.7%

OPTION A.1b)

-Extended written exams: 80%:

-1st Term: 46.7%

-2nd Term: 33.3%

-Laboratory: 20%

A.2) Declining to sit: not attending to the extended written exam in extraordinary exam call will imply declining to sit the

mentioned call. In this case, the grade will be “Non Attendance”.

A.3) Description of assessment tools:

- Extended written exams: One for each term. They will ask for theory and exercises. They will be held on the date for

extraordinary exam call.

- Laboratory: grade obtained in ordinary exam call will be kept.

- Short exams: grade obtained in ordinary exam call will be kept.

A.4) Conditions to pass the course:

*The final grade will be obtained according to A.1) only when both the grades of the extended written exams for the 1st

and 2nd term are of 4 or more out of 10. Otherwise, the final grade will be 4 or less out of 10.

*To pass the course the final grade must be of 5 or more out of 10.

NOTE: Topics released during an academic year will not be kept for following academic years.

B) FINAL ASSESSMENT SYSTEM

B.1) The weight of each assessment tool for the final score is as follows:

-Extended written exams: 80%

-1st Term: 46.7%

-2nd Term: 33.3%

-Laboratory exam: 20%

B.2) Declining to sit: not attending to the extended written exam in extraordinary exam call will imply declining to sit the

mentioned call. In this case, the grade will be “Non Attendance”.

B.3) Description of assessment tools:

- Extended written exams: One for each term. They will ask for theory and exercises. They will be held on the date for

extraordinary exam call.

- Laboratory exam: laboratory practical skills assessment. It will be held on the date for extraordinary exam call.

B.4) Conditions to pass the course:

*The final grade will be obtained according to B.1) only when both the grades of the extended written exams for the 1st

and 2nd term are of 4 or more out of 10. Otherwise, the final grade will be 4 or less out of 10.

*The students not attending the lab exam will score 0 out of 10 in this assessment tool.

*To pass the course the final grade must be of 5 or more out of 10.

## COMPULSORY MATERIALS

ZUBIA I., MONASTERIO E., BANDRES L.M., ARRUTI P. Teoría de Circuitos. Servicio Editorial de la UPV/EHU.(castellano)

ARRANBIDE I., ARRUTI P., AZURZA O., MOLINA J., MONASTERIO E., UGARTEMENDIA J., ZUBIA, I. Apuntes de teoría específicos para Fundamentos de Tecnología Eléctrica. ISSN 2255-2316 (castellano)

ARRANBIDE I., ARRUTI P., AZURZA O., GARCIA P., MOLINA J., MONASTERIO E., OLANO A. Relación de problemas específicos propuestos para Fundamentos de Tecnología Eléctrica (castellano, euskara, english)

Reglamento Electrotécnico de Baja Tensión (REBT). (castellano, euskara, english)

eGela: Virtual platform for teaching in UPV/EHU.(castellano, euskara, english)

Institutional email: xxx@ikasle.ehu.eus (castellano, euskara, english)

## BIBLIOGRAPHY

**Basic bibliography**

Castellano:

GARCÍA TRASANCOS J. "Instalaciones Eléctricas en Media y Baja Tensión". Adaptado al nuevo RBT #BOE 224, de 18

de septiembre de 2002#. 6ª edición. Paraninfo. 2009. 422 p. ISBN 978-84-283-3190-6.

FRAILE MORA J. "Máquinas Eléctricas". 6ª edición. Madrid: McGraw-Hill Interamericana de España, S.A.U., 2008. 756

p.ISBN 978-84-481-6112-5.

FRAILE MORA J., FRAILE ARDANUY J. "Problemas de Máquinas Eléctricas". Madrid: McGraw-Hill Interamericana de

España, S.A.U., 2005. 428 p. ISBN 84-481-4240-3.

V. PARRA et al., Teoría de Circuitos, editorial UNED, Madrid.

G. ROBLES, "Problemas resueltos de fundamentos de ingeniería eléctrica" Paraninfo, Madrid, 2015

J.R. CODGELL, "Fundamentos de Circuitos Eléctricos", Ed. Pentice-Hall, mexico,2000.

J. Mazón y otros "Guia de autoaprendizaje da máquinas eléctricas" Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008

N. MORENO y otros "Problemas Resueltos de Tecnología Eléctrica" Ed. Thomson Arg., Madrid, 2003.

Euskara:

Z.AGINAKO y otros "Zirkuituen Teoriako 100 Ariketa" Elhuyar, Usurbil, 2007

R. SANJURJO y otros "Zirkuitu elektrikoen teoria" Servicio de publicaciones de la UPV, Bilbao, 2005.

M.A. ZORROZUA y otros " Makina Elektrikoak" Servicio de publicaciones de la UPV, Zarautz, 2007.

J. EPELDE " Makina Elektrikoak" I y II, Ed. Elhuyar, Usurbil, 1997

J. Mazón y otros "Makina elektrikoak oinarrizko kontzeptuak eta aplikazioak " UPV/EHU 2012

English:

M. Wang, Understandable electric circuits, IET 2010, eISBN: 9781849191142

J. Bird, Electrical circuit Theory and Technology (2nd Edition). Newnes 2003, ISBN 0 7506 5784 7

Stephen J. Chapman, Electric Machinery Fundamentals (5th Edition). McGraw-Hill, 2012. ISBN 978-0-07-352954-7.

A. Hambley, Electrical Engineering: Principles & Applications, 6th Edition. Pearson 2014. ISBN 9780133116649

**In-depth bibliography**

Castellano:

DORF, R.C. "Circuitos Eléctricos: introducción al Análisis y diseño". Marcombo

EDMINISTER, J.A. "Teoría y problemas de circuitos eléctricos". McGraw-Hill

NILSSON, J. "Circuitos eléctricos". Addison-Wesley Iberoamericana

VAN VALKENBURG. "Análisis de redes." Limusa

REBT Edición Comentada y Textos Técnicos Complementarios de Asea Brown Boveri SA

GONZÁLEZ MARTÍN y otros, "Prácticas de Laboratorio de Máquinas Eléctricas". C.P. EUITI, Bilbao, 1984.

A. GOMEZ EXPOSITO, "Análisis y operación de sistemas de energía eléctrica", McGraw-Hill, 2002. ISBN 84-481-3592-X.

Euskara:

I. Albizu et al., Energia elektrikoaren sorkuntza, UPV/EHU 2014, ISBN 978-84-9860-905-9

A. Etxegarai, Teknologia elektrikoa, UPV/EHU 2012, ISBN 978-84-9860-671-3

K. Sagastibeitia et al., Zirkuituak. Laborategiko praktikak, UPV/EHU 2009, ISBN 978-84-692-5970-2

J. M. Sanchez Losada, Sare elektrikoen proiektuak, UPV/EHU 2007, ISBN 978-84-690-4991-4

English:

P.C. Sen, Principles of Electric Machines and Power Electronics (2nd Edition). John Wiley & Sons, 1997. ISBN 0-471-

02295-0.

J. F. Gieras, Advancement in Electric Machines, Springer 2008, e-ISBN: 978-1-4020-9007-3

H. Kwanty and K. Miu-Miller, Power System Dynamics and Control, Springer 2010, e-ISBN 978-0-8176-4674-5

**Useful websites**

- Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea: www.ehu.es

- Gipuzkoako Ingeniaritza eskola: www.politeknikoa.ehu.es

- Ingeniaritza Elektrikoko Saila: www.ingeniaritza-elektrikoa.ehu.es

- UNE Arauak: www.aenor.es

- Gipuzkoako Perito eta Ingeniari Teknikoen Elkargo Ofiziala: www.copitig.com

- ABB Behe-Tentsioko Produktuak eta Aplikazio Yeknikoetako Koadernoak: www.abb.es/bajatension

- Schneider electric: http://www.schneider-electric.es/es/

- REE http://www.ree.es/es/

- IBERDROLA https://www.iberdrola.es/inicio

- ENDESA http://www.endesa.es/

- ORMAZABAL http://www.ormazabal.com/es

- INGETEAM http://www.ingeteam.com/

- ZIV https://www.ziv.es/es/