# 26512 - Fluid Mechanics

## DESCRIPTION & CONTEXTUALISATION OF THE SUBJECT

Fluid mechanics is of crucial importance in many engineering applications, and is itself a major branch of engineering

knowledge. This course presents the fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, so that the future engineers are able to understand

the role that fluids play in a particular engineering problem. This involves:

a) the identification of the fluid properties and fundamental laws that will play a major role in a given problem with a fluid in

rest or a moving fluid

b) the understanding of such laws and properties

c) the capacity to apply these properties and laws to solve the problem using the appropriate tools

d) the capacity of extrapolating the results to analogue problems.

This subject directly derives from physics. As so, major understanding and reasoning difficulties are implied for the

student, but with the advantage of being able to solve real world problems.

First the most relevant physical properties of fluids are explained. Then the fundamental equations governing the behavior

of fluids will be introduced, together with the dimensional analysis and the related similitude laws. The final part of the

course is focused in engineering applications of the previously introduced laws and properties. Amongst others, following

laws and related equations will be considered during the course:

**Hydrostatic equation and applications

**Continuity equation or mass conservation law

**Energy equation and applications

**Momentum equation and applications

**Dimensional analysis and similitude laws

Talking about applications of fluid mechanics, the following ones will also be considered:

**Determination of flow characteristics in steady internal and open channel incompressible flows, but with some attention

to unsteady and compressible flows

**Classification and description of hydraulic machinery

**Simple piping systems

Summarizing, the course will train the students in the basic skills that will enable them to develop engineering professional

activities in any context in which fluids are directly or indirectly involved.

## COMPETENCIES/LEARNING RESULTS FOR THE SUBJECT

General Degree Competences involved:

-C.3 Knowledge of basic and technological subjects that enables students to learn new methods and theories, providing

them with versatility to adapt to new situations.

C.4 Capacity to solve problems using initiative, decision making, creativity, critical thinking, and to communicate and

convey knowledge, abilities and skills in the field of Industrial Engineering), and the cross-curricular competencies C12

(Adopt a responsible and organised attitude towards work and a willingness to learn taking into account the challenge of

the necessary continuous training.

C.13 Apply scientific method strategies: analyse qualitatively and quantitatively the problem situation, propose hypotheses

and solutions using industrial engineering models, speciality mechanics.

The specific competencies related to these more general degree competencies are:

- Know, understand and apply the basic concepts of Fluid Mechanics to carry out professional engineering activities in the

field of fluids (related to C3, C4 and C13 competencies).

- Apply scientific method strategies to fluid mechanics: analyse a problem qualitative and quantitatively, propose

hypotheses and extract conclusions from the solutions (related to C3, C4 and C13 competencies).

- Effectively communicate the procedure used to solve a problem using concepts, procedures and results that belong to

the field of fluid mechanics. (related to C4 competency).

-Adopt a responsible and organised attitude towards work and a willingness to learn, and develop the capacity to work

autonomously (related to C4 competency).

The didactic objectives are the following:

1. Identify the basic elements of hydraulic systems. Analyse the known data and measuring units.

2. Based on known data, propose the optimal solution for a given problem.

3. Solve the problem applying previously assimilated knowledge.

4. Interpret the results and extract conclusions.

## THEORETICAL/PRACTICAL CONTENT

TEACHING PROGRAMME

1.- INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS. PREVIOUS CONCEPTS.

2.- PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS. DEFINITIONS.

3.- GENERAL LAWS OF FLUID STATICS.

4.- STATICS OF INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOWS IN THE GRAVITATIONAL FIELD.

5.- FLUID STATICS IN OTHER FORCE FIELDS. RELATIVE EQUILIBRIUM.

6.- STATICS OF COMPRESSIBLE FLOWS IN THE GRAVITATIONAL FIELD.

7.- FORCES ON SURFACES.

8.- FORCES ON CLOSED BODIES.

9.- FUNDAMENTALS OF FLUID DYNAMICS.

10.- MASS CONSERVATION THEOREM. CONTINUITY EQUATION.

11.- FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS OF FLUID DYNAMICS

12.- THE BERNOULLI EQUATION

13.- APPLICATIONS OF THE BERNOULLI EQUATION. MEASURING DEVICES.

14.- MOMENTUM EQUATION.

15.- APPLICATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION

16.- DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS AND SIMILITUDE.

17.- EFFECTS OF VISCOSITY IN FLOWS.

18.- HEAD LOSSES IN CLOSED PIPES

19.- STEADY FLOW IN CLOSED PIPES. PRACTICAL PIPING CALCULATIONS. NETWORKS.

20.- VARIABLE FLOW REGIME IN PIPES.

21.- STEADY OPEN-CHANNEL FLOWS.

22.- HYDRAULIC MACHINES. KEY PRINCIPLES. TURBOMACHINES.

23.- WATER TURBINES. HYDROELECTRIC POWER STATIONS.

24.- HYDRAULIC PUMPS.

25.- PUMPING FACILITIES.

6.- LABORATORY PROGRAMME

1.- FLUID PROPERTIES. MEASURING PRESSURE.

2.- FORCES ON SURFACES AND BODIES.

3.- MEASURING FLUX PROPERTIES I.

4.- MEASURING FLUX PROPERTIES II.

5.- REAL FLUXES. HEAD LOSSES. HYDRAULIC MACHINERY. PUMPS AND TURBINES. PUMPING FACILITIES.

## METHODS

The course comprises 6 ECTS credits, 4,5 for classroom theory and problem sessions, and 1,5 for practical laboratory

sessions.

The course is given twice weekly in 90 minute sessions during the second term. No distinction is made between

theoretical and problem resolving sessions. Theory and problems are mixed, introducing problems as progress is made

with theoretical aspects, and whenever possible. Both assistance to the classes, and individual ongoing work during the

whole term, are critical aspects to properly follow the course and to assimilate of taught concepts.

Along with the theory and problem solving sessions, 15 practical laboratory hours are also included in the course. These

are divided in approximately five 3 hour long laboratory sessions. The laboratory practical sessions are designed to

deepen in the concepts explained in theory classes, and also to test them practically in the laboratory. However, these

also train the students in fundamental aspects like working in groups, routinely make measurements in the context of a

laboratory or working with real world measurements.

Laboratory sessions will take place once the concepts involved in a given laboratory session have been explained in

ordinary classroom sessions, as long as this is possible. The students will work in small groups (5 students maximum) in

the laboratory under the supervision of the teacher. A record of assistance will be taken in laboratory sessions.

Recall that a continuous work during the whole term is of crucial importance to follow the course, assimilate the concepts

and successfully fulfill the assessment.

## TYPES OF TEACHING

Type of teaching | M | S | GA | GL | GO |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Classroom hours | 45 | 15 | |||

Hours of study outside the classroom | 67,5 | 22,5 |

**Legend**: **M:** Lecture **S: **Seminario **GA: **Pract.Class.Work **GL: **Pract.Lab work **GO:** Pract.computer wo

**GCL: **Clinical Practice **TA: **Workshop **TI: **Ind. workshop **GCA:** Field workshop

## ASSESSMENT SYSTEMS

- Continuous assessment system

- Final assessment system

## TOOLS USED & GRADING PERCENTAGES

- Extended written exam 100%

## ORDINARY EXAM CALL: GUIDELINES & DECLINING TO SIT

The course shares a common assessment procedure with the Basque and Spanish groups of the same subject, called

"Fluidoen Mekanika" and "Mecánica de Fluidos" respectively. For a description of the assessment methodology and

criteria, check the Basque or Spanish versions.

## EXTRAORDINARY EXAM CALL: GUIDELINES & DECLINING TO SIT

The course shares a common assessment procedure with the Basque and Spanish groups of the same subject, called

"Fluidoen Mekanika" and "Mecánica de Fluidos" respectively. For a description of the assessment methodology and

criteria, check the Basque or Spanish versions.

## BIBLIOGRAPHY

**Basic bibliography**

English

1) CROWE C. T., ELGER D. F., ROBERSON J. A., " Engineering Fluid Mechanics", 7th Edition, J. Wiley and Sons.

2) KUNDU P.K., COHEN I. M., "Fluid Mechanics", Second Edition, Academic Press.

3) POTTER M. C., WIGGERT D. C., "Mechanics of Fluids", Third Edition, Prentice-Hall.

4) WHITE F., "Fluid Mechanics", 7th Edition, Mc-Graw-Hill.

Spanish

5) ALMANDOZ J., MONGELOS B., PELLEJERO I., "Apuntes de mecánica de fluidos e hidráulica" (2ª parte de la

asignatura) E.U.Politécnica de Donostia.San Sebastián. UPV-EHU.

6) ALMANDOZ J., MONGELOS B., PELLEJERO I., "Cuaderno de cuadros y ábacos" E.U.Politécnica de Donostia.San

Sebastián. UPV-EHU.

7) ALMANDOZ J., MONGELOS B., PELLEJERO I., "Colección de problemas de mecánica de fluidos e hidráulica"

E.U.Politécnica de Donostia.San Sebastián. UPV-EHU.

8) ALMANDOZ J., MONGELOS B., PELLEJERO I., REBÓN D. "Prácticas de laboratorio de mecánica de fluidos e

hidráulica" E.U.Politécnica de Donostia.San Sebastián. UPV-EHU.

9) AGÜERA SORIANO, José. "Mecánica de fluidos incompresibles y turbomáquinas hidráulicas". Ed. Ciencias - 1992.

10) CARLIER, M. " Hydraulique genérale et appliquée" Ed. Eyrolles. Paris 1980 (importador Diaz de Santos, Madrid).

11) ESCRIBÁ BONAFÉ, Domingo. "Hidráulica para ingenieros". Ed. Bellisco 1988.

12) FOX R.W. y Mc. DONALD. A.T. "Introducción a la mecánica de fluidos". Ed. Mc. Graw-Hill-1989.

13) FRANZINI J.B. y FINNEMORE E.J. "Mecánica de fluidos con aplicaciones en Ingeniería". Ed. Mc. Graw-Hill

–1999.

14) FRENCH, Richard H. "Hidráulica de canales abiertos". Ed. Mc. Graw-Hill 1993.

15) NOVAK, A.I.B. Y otros. "Estructuras hidráulicas". Ed. Mc. Graw-Hill 2001.

16) SOTELO ÁVILA, Gilberto. "Hidráulica general. Volumen I. Fundamentos". Ed. Limusa 1995.

17) STREETER V.L. WYLIE E.B. "Mecánica de los fluidos". Ed. Mc. Graw-Hill, 1979.

18) WHITE F.M. "Mecánica de los fluidos". Ed. Mc. Graw-Hill 1983.

19) ROBERSON / CROWE "Mecánica de fluidos". Ed.: Interamérica.

20) GARCÍA TAPIA, Nicolás. "Ingeniería Fluidomecánica". Ed. Secretariado de publicaciones. Universidad de Valladolid.

21) POTTER M.C., WIGGERT D.C. "Mecánica de Fluidos". Ed. Thomson . Ciencias e Ingenierías.

22) MUNSON B.R., YOUNG D.F., OKIISHI T.H. "Fundamentos de mecánica de fluidos" Ed. Limusa Wiley.

23) ÇENGEL,Y. CIMBALA J. "Mecánica de fluidos. Fundamentos y aplicaciones" Ed. Mc. Graw-Hill 2006.

24) DOUGLAS J.F. " Mecánica de los fluidos" Vomumen I y II. Ed. Bellisco 1991

25) MATAIX C. "Mecánica de fluidos y Máquinas Hidráulica". Ed. del Castillo, 1982.

26) GILES R. V. "Mecánica de los fluidos e Hidráulicas". Ed. Mc. Graw-Hill.

**In-depth bibliography**

- STREETER V.L. WYLIE E.B. "Mecánica de los fluidos". Ed.: Mc. Graw-Hill, 1979.

- WHITE F.M. "Mecánica de fluidos" Ed.: Mc. Graw-Hill 1983.

**Useful websites**