IBERLID is an interactive database of lead isotope analysis (LIA) results of geological and archaeological samples from the Iberian Peninsula.

Nearly 3000 Pb isotopic analyses from over 140 different references are compiled in IBERLID. The database includes results from minerals, rocks and archaeological metal objects, standardized to allow for sample selection, grouping and plotting.

The rationale for data standardization, variables used and calculations may be found in García de Madinabeitia et al. (2021) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oregeorev.2021.104279.

Pb isotopic analyses

Although sometimes controversial, the use of Pb isotope data in geological research of ore deposits and in provenance studies of metals in archaeology has proved to be a useful tool for raw materials investigation. Users of this kind of information have often requested complete datasets including not only numerical values of isotope ratios but also mineralogical and geological information about the samples analysed in order to allow for conscientious data comparison.

The IBERLID database is intended to enable a straightforward use of lead isotope results and make easy their comparison. The compilation and evaluation of data from nearly three thousand lead isotope analyses is expected to contribute and expand the knowledge on the geology and isotopic composition of ore deposits of the Iberian Peninsula. This should also allow for a better use and interpretation of LIA data in studies of metal provenance in archaeology.

The IBERLID database is not just an extensive Table of lead isotope ratios. As described in the following paragraphs, it also includes interactive tools linking isotopic ratios, geographical, geological, mineralogical and archaeological information, thus providing new ways for sample data selection, pooling and comparison.

Geology of the Iberian Peninsula

Despite its relatively small size, the bedrock geology of the Iberian Peninsula is complex as it includes from rocks generated in superficial sedimentary conditions to upper mantle units covering the last 600 Ma of Earth’s history. This complexity is also reflected in the ample typology and volume of ore mineral deposits. There exist magmatic-related (both plutonic and volcanic), hydrothermal (vein, skarn and shear-zone related), sedimentary, stratabound… mineral deposits whose exploitation historically has ranged in size from scattered and artisan exploitations to world-class operations. Different minerals have been exploited during the long-standing history of mining, including Pb minerals, Cu minerals, silver and gold. These were extracted in some mines since, at least, the 3rd Millennium BC and have been classical sources of ores for metallic objects from numerous archaeological sites outside Iberia.

This complexity is reflected in the lead isotopic composition and different types of Pb provinces can be detected through statistical study of the LIA results.

Location of samples

All the samples in IBERLID may be located on a map using the geographical information included in the database. In the map shown the samples are given different colours according to their characteristics.

The interactive map allows to zoom in/out for detailed sample location and show or hide samples by selecting them in the upper right menu.

Geographical information was obtained from either published sample coordinates or, in most cases, established using information provided in the original publications and geographical maps available online from national and regional institutions.

How to use IBERLID

IBERLID is a flexible database that can be used directly online or can be downloaded for local use.


Online data allow to inspect the isotopic ratios of selected samples in different graphs and tables.

3 tabs are designed for online use (accessible in the upper menu):

  • Geological Samples compiles analyses with direct relationship between isotopic data and sample location.

  • Archaeological Samples compiles analyses without immediate relation between sample and geological/geographical information due to the possibility of some type of material transport or treatment.

  • Filtered Samples lists the selected samples after filtering spurious values through statistical study of the whole data set. See García de Madinabeitia et al. (submitted) for exclusion criteria.

Each interactive site directs to a new window with 2 left boxes for data selection. In those boxes sample groups can be established by selecting standardized variables, like geological location and/or analysed material, or directly by geographical information selecting an area in a map.


Besides the online option for data use, all of data can be download for customized use in different formats.

Whole database

The whole database can be downloaded in an Excel version workbook containing 141 spreadsheet pages. The first sheet gives general information about variables standardization and the complete list of references. The additional 140 sheets show the compiled data arranged by reference in chronological order.

This archive is accessible here: http://www.ehu.eus/ibercron/data/IBERLID.xlsx

The whole database can be also obtained in with csv format without additional information. This file is a raw sheet with all of data and can be download from: http://www.ehu.eus/ibercron/data/wholedatabase.csv

Geological data

A database of only the geological samples, including all the variables considered, is accessible at http://www.ehu.eus/ibercron/data/geological.samples.csv

Archaeological data

A database of only the archaeological samples, including all the variables considered is http://www.ehu.eus/ibercron/data/archaeological.samples.csv

Filtered data

The database in csv format after data filtering for outlier exclusion can be downloaded here: http://www.ehu.eus/ibercron/data/wholedatabase_filtered.csv

References used in the database

Sample data from 140 different studies are compiled In IBERLID. Each study (article, monograph, report, etc.) in IBERLID has a code for plots.

The next table shows all the samples with the corresponding code.

How to cite IBERLID

All the details about this database are included in García de Madinabeitia et al., 2021.

García De Madinabeitia, S., Gil Ibarguchi, J.I., Santos Zalduegui, J.F., 2021. IBERLID: A lead isotope database and tool for metal provenance and ore de-posits research IBERLID: A lead isotope database and tool for metal provenance and ore deposits research. Ore Geology Reviews. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oregeorev.2021.104279

Contact us

The database is maintained by faculty and researchers from the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU).

To include your data or correct detected errors you can contact us at