Ideology and Knowledge-How: A Rylean Perspective

Michael Kremer


In work culminating in Know How (2009), Jason Stanley argues, against Gilbert Ryle, that knowledge-how is a species of knowledge-that. In How Propaganda Works (2015), Stanley portrays this work as undermining a "flawed ideology" supporting elitist valuations of intellectual work and workers. However, the link between Stanley's two philosophical projects is weak. Ryle's distinction between knowledge-how and knowledge-that lacks the political consequences foreseen by Stanley. Versions of "intellectualism" have as much potential to align with hierarchical political systems as do versions of "anti-intellectualism." Consequently, the debate about knowledge-how and knowledge-that comes apart from Stanley's more recent concerns about flawed ideologies.


ideology; knowledge-how; knowledge-that; intellectualism; Jason Stanley; Gilbert Ryle

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