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Prevalence and antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and their close-related species in oral candidiasis

Este es el resumen de nuestro último artículo científico publicado en Archives of Oral Biology. Quiero agradecer a mis colegas de la Universidad del País Vasco / Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea Katherine Miranda-Cadena, Cristina Marcos-Arias, Estibaliz Mateo, José Manuel Aguirre y Elena Eraso, su inestimable colaboración y coautoría.

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Resumen

Objective: To evaluate the importance of Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and their close-related species, Candida bracarensis, Candida nivariensis, Candida metapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis in patients with oral candidiasis and, to determine the in vitro activities of antifungal drugs currently used for the treatment.

Methods: One hundred fourteen isolates of C. glabrata and 97 of C. parapsilosis, previously identified by conventional mycological methods, were analysed by molecular techniques. In vitro antifungal susceptibility to fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, and nystatin was evaluated by CLSI M44-A2 disk diffusion test, and by CLSI M27-A3 microdilution for fluconazole.

Results: All C. glabrata isolates were identified as C. glabrata sensu stricto, 93 out of 97 C. parapsilosis isolates as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, three as C. orthopsilosis and one as C. metapsilosis. Candida glabrata was mainly isolated in mixed cultures but C. parapsilosis complex was more frequent in pure culture. Candida metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis were isolated as pure culture and both species were susceptible to all antifungal agents tested. Most C. glabrata isolates were susceptible to miconazole and nystatin, but resistant to fluconazole and itraconazole. Azole cross resistance was also observed. Candida parapsilosis isolates were susceptible to fluconazole although azole cross resistance to miconazole and itraconazole was observed.

Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of accurate identification and antifungal susceptibility testing of oral Candida isolates in order to have an in-depth understanding of the role of C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis in oral candidiasis.

The continuous changes in the aetiology and epidemiology of invasive candidiasis: from familiar Candida albicans to multiresistant Candida auris

Este es el resumen de nuestra última revisión científica publicada en International Microbiology. Quiero agradecer a mis colegas y profesoras de la Universidad del País Vasco / Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea Cristina Marcos-Arias, Rosario San-Millán, Estibaliz Mateo y Elena Eraso, su inestimable colaboración y coautoría.

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Abstract

Recent changes in the aetiology and epidemiology of invasive candidiasis have serious implications for current and future diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. The aim of the current review was to discuss the epidemiology of invasive candidiasis, the distribution of Candida species in different regions of the world, the medical concerns of the changing aetiology and the emergence of antifungal resistance. Overall burden of invasive candidiasis remains high, especially in vulnerable persons, such as the elderly, immunosuppressed or debilitated patients. Moreover, there is a progressive shift in the aetiology of invasive candidiasis from Candida albicans to other species of Candida, probably related to the increased use of azole drugs with a clear trend towards increased antifungal resistance. Finally, the emergence and rise of multiresistant species, such as Candida auris or Candida glabrata, is a major threat making necessary invasive candidiasis worldwide surveillances. These changes have serious implications for the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of invasive candidiasis. Updated knowledge of the current local epidemiology of invasive candidiasis is critical for the clinical management.