Publications by year

Publications by year

This is a list of our publications in indexed journals in the field of biomedical signal processing applied to the treatment of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. For a comprehensive list of publications of the members of the group check our public profiles at google scholar.




Methods for calculating ventilation rates during resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. H E Wang, X Jaureguibeitia, E Aramendi, M Nassal, N Panchal, E Alonso, G Nichol, T Aufderheide, M R Daya, J Carlson, A H Idris. Resuscitation, March 2023, 184, 109679.

Impedance-based ventilation detection and signal quality control during out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation. X Jaureguibeitia, E Aramendi, H E Wang, A H Idris, IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics (JBHI), March. doi: 10.1109/JBHI.2023.3253780.

Heart rate and QRS duration as biomarkers predict the immediate outcome from pulseless electrical activity. A. Norvik, J.T. Kvaløy, GW. Skjeflo, D. Bergum, T. Nordseth, J.P. Loennechen, E. Unneland, D.G. Buckler, A. Bhardwaj, T. Eftestøl, E. Aramendi, BS. Abella, E. Skogvoll, Resuscitation, February, 109739.

Beyond heart murmur detection: Automatic murmur grading from phonocardiogram. A Elola, E Aramendi, J Oliveira, F Renna, M Coimbra, M Reyna, R Sameni, G D Clifford, A Bahrami Rad, IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics (JBHI). 

Amplitude spectral area of ventricula fibrillation and amiodarone study in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The MOSAIC study. F. R. Gentile, L. Wik, E. Aramendi, E. Baldi, I. Isasi, JE. Steen-Hansen, S. Compagnoni, A. Fasolino, E. Contri, A. Palo, R. Primi, S. Bendotti, A. Currao, S. Savastano. Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine. May. Vol 10 - 2023 |

Monitoring chest compressions using finger photoplethysmography in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. J. Urteaga, E. Aramendi, A. Elola, M. R. Daya, A. H. Idris. Biomedical Signal Processing and Control. Vol 86, Part A, September, 105144.

Non-shockable Rhythms: A parametric model for the Immediate Probability of Return of Spontaneous Circulation over time. E Unneland, A Norvik, D Bergum, DG Buckler, A Bhardwaj, T Eftestol, E Aramendi, T Nordseth, BS Abella, JT Kvaloy, E Skogvoll. Resuscitation. Available online 3 July 2023, 109895.

Amplitude spectral area of ventricular fibrillation and defibrillation success at low energy in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Francesca R. Gentile, Lars Wik, Elisabete Aramendi, Enrico Baldi, Iraia Isasi, Jon Erik Steen-Hansen, Sara Compagnoni, Alessandro Fasolino, Enrico Contri, Alessandra Palo, Roberto Primi, Sara Bendotti, Alessia Currao, Federico Quilico, Luca Vici Scajola, Clara Lopiano, Simone Savastano. Intern Emerg Med (July 2023).

Bag-Valve-Mask Ventilation and Survival from Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Multicenter Study. Ahamed Idris, Elisabete Aramendi, Brian Leroux, Xabier Jaureguibeitia, Betty Yang, Sarah Shaver, Mary Chang, Thomas Rea, Peter Kudenchuk, James Christenson, Christian Vaillancourt, Clifton Callaway, David Salcido, Jonas Carson, Jennifer Blackwood, and Henry Wang. Circulation. 12 Nov 2023.



The association of race with CPR quality following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. RH Schmicker, A Blewer, JR Lupton, TP Aufderheide, HE Wang, AH Idris, E Aramendi, MB Hagahmed, OT Traynor, MR Colella, MR Daya. Resuscitation, January 2022, 170, 192-200.

Physiological effects of providing supplemental air for avalanche victims. A randomised trial. L Wik, G Brattebø, Ø Østerås, J Assmus, U Irusta, E Aramendi, S Mydske, T Skaalhegg, SC Skaiaa, Ø Thomassen. Resuscitation, January 2022, 172, 38-46.

Analysis of few-shot fechniques for fungal plant disease classification and evaluation of clustering capabilities over real datasets. I Egusquiza, A Picon, U Irusta, A Bereciartua-Perez, T Eggers, C Klukas, E Aramendi, R Navarra-Mestre. Frontiers in Plant Science, March 2022, 13, 1-17.

The CirCor DigiScope dataset: from murmur detection to murmur classification. J Oliveira, F Renna, PD Costa, M Nogueira, C Oliveira, C Ferreira, A Jorge, S Mattos, T Hatem, T Tavares, A Elola, AB Rad, R Sameni, GD Clifford, MT Coimbra. IEEE journal of biomedical and health informatics, June 2022, 26, 2524-2535.

Pulseless electrical activity in in-hospital cardiac arrest - A crossroad for decisions. AA Norvik , E Unneland, D Bergum, DG Buckler, A Bhardwaj, T Eftestøl, E Aramendi, T Nordseth, BS Abella, JT Kvaløy, E Skogvoll. Resuscitation, July 2022, 176, 117-124.

Airway Strategy and Ventilation Rates in the Pragmatic Airway Resuscitation Trial. HE Wang, X Jaureguibeitia, E Aramendi, G Nichol, T Aufderheide, MR Daya, M Hansen, M Nassal, A Panchal, DA Nikollah, E Alonso, J Carlson, RH Schmicker, S Stephens, U Irusta, AH Idris. Resuscitation, July 2022, 176, 80-87.

Issues in the automated classification of multilead ecgs using heterogeneous labels and populations. MA Reyna, N Sadr, EA Perez Alday, A Gu, AJ Shah, C Robichaux, AB Rad, A Elola, S Seyedi, S Ansari, H Ghanbari, Q Li, A Sharma, GD Clifford. Physiological Measurement, August 2022, 43, 084001.



End-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) and ventricular fibrillation amplitude spectral area (AMSA) for shock outcome prediction in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Are they two sides of the same coin? L Frigerio, E Baldi, E Aramendi, B Chicote, U Irusta, E Contri, A Palo, S Compagnoni, R Fracchia, G Iotti, LO Visconti, S Savastano. Resuscitation 2021, 160, 142-149.

Airway Strategy and Chest Compression Quality in the Pragmatic Airway Resuscitation Trial. HE Wang, X Jaureguibeitia, E Aramendi, J Jarvis, J Carlson, U Irusta, E Alonso, T Aufderheide, R Schmicker, M Hansen, R Huebinger, MR Colella, R Gordon, R Suchting, AH Idris. Resuscitation, May 2021, 162, 93-98.

Autofluorescence image reconstruction and virtual staining for in-vivo optical biopsying. A Picon, A Medela, LF Sánchez-Peralta, R Cicchi, R Bilbao, D Alfieri, A Elola, B Glover, C Saratxaga, IEEE Access 2021, 9, 32081-32093.

Multimodal algorithm for the classification of circulation states during out-of-hospital cardiac arrestA Elola, E Aramendi, U Irusta, PO Berve, L Wik. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 2021, 68(6), 1913-1922.

Shock decision algorithm for use during load distributing band cardiopulmonary resuscitation. I Isasi, U Irusta, E Aramendi, JA Olsen, L Wik. Resuscitation, August 2021, 165, 93-100.

A machine learning model for the prognosis of pulseless electrical activity during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. J Urteaga, E Aramendi, A Elola, U Irusta, A Idris. Entropy 2021, 23(7), 847.

Tidal volume measurements via transthoracic impedance waveform characteristics: the effect of age, body mass index and gender. A single centre interventional study. PO Berve, U Irusta, J Kramer-Johansen, T Skålhegg, E Aramendi, L Wik. Resuscitation 2021, 167, 218-224.

Novel Application of Thoracic Impedance to Characterize Ventilations During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in the Pragmatic Airway Resuscitation Trial. MJ Nassal, X Jaureguibeitia, E Aramendi, U Irusta, A Panchal, HE Wang, A Idris. Resuscitation 2021, 168, 58-64.

Methodology and framework for the analysis of cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality in large and heterogeneous cardiac arrest datasetsX Jaureguibeitia, E Aramendi, U Irusta, E Alonso, TP Aufderheided, RH Schmickere, M Hansen , R Suchting, JN Carlsonh, AH Idris, HE Wang, Resuscitation 2021, 168, 44-51.



Automatic detection of ventilations during mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation. X Jaureguibeitia, U Irusta, E Aramendi, P Owens, H Wang, A Idris. IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics, 24 (9), 2580-2588.

Factors affecting the course of resuscitation from cardiac arrest with pulseless electrical activity in children and adolescents. E Skogvoll, T Nordseth, R M Sutton, T Eftestøl, U Irusta, E Aramendi, D Niles, V Nadkarni, RA Berg, BS Abella, JT Kvaløy. Resuscitation 152, 116-122.

Rhythm Analysis during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Using Convolutional Neural Networks. I Isasi, U Irusta, E Aramendi, T Eftestøl, J Kramer-Johansen, L Wik. Entropy 22 (6), 595.

Restoration of the electrocardiogram during mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation. I Isasi, U Irusta, E Aramendi, AH Idris, L Sörnmo. Physiological measurement 41 (10) 105006.

Towards the Prediction of Rearrest during Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest. A Elola, E Aramendi, E Rueda, U Irusta, H Wang, A Idris. Entropy 22 (7), 758.

Shock Decision Algorithms for Automated External Defibrillators Based on Convolutional Networks. X Jaureguibeitia, G Zubia, U Irusta, E Aramendi, B Chicote, Daniel Alonso, Andima Larrea, Carlos Corcuera, IEEE Access 8, 154746-154758.

A Machine Learning Framework for Pulse Detection During Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest. E Alonso, U Irusta, E Aramendi, MR Daya, IEEE Access 8, 161031-161041.

Classification of 12-lead ecgs: the physionet/computing in cardiology challenge 2020. EA Perez Alday, A Gu, AJ Shah, C Robichaux, AI Wong, C Liu, F Liu, AB Rad, A Elola, S Seyedi, Q Li, A Sharma, GD Clifford, MA Reyna. Physiological Measurement 41(12) 124003.

Few-Shot Learning approach for plant disease classification using images taken in the field. D Argüeso,  A Picon, U Irusta, A Medela, MG San-Emeterio, A Bereciartua, A Alvarez-Gila. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 2020, 175, 105542.



Automatic Cardiac Rhythm Classification With Concurrent Manual Chest Compressions. I Isasi, U Irusta, AB Rad, E Aramendi, M Zabihi, T Eftestøl, J Kramer-Johansen, L Wik. IEEE Access 2019, 7, 115147-115159.

Association of ventilation with outcomes from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. MP Chang, Y Lu, B Leroux, E Aramendi, P Owens, HE Wang, AH Idris. Resuscitation 2019, 141, 174–181.

Capnography: A support tool for the detection of return of spontaneous circulation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. A Elola, E Aramendi, U Irusta, E Alonso, Y Lu, MP Chang, P Owens, AH Idris. Resuscitation 2019, 142, 153-161.

Mixed convolutional and long short-term memory network for the detection of lethal ventricular arrhythmia. A Picon, U Irusta, A Álvarez-Gila, E Aramendi, F Alonso-Atienza, C Figuera, U Ayala, E Garrote, L Wik, J Kramer-Johansen, T Eftestøl. Plos One May 2019.

Transthoracic Impedance measured with defibrillator pads- New interpretations of signal change induced by ventilations. PO Berve, U Irusta, J Kramer-Johansen, T Skålhegg, HW Kongsgård, C Brunborg, E Aramendi, L Wik. J. Clin. Med 2019, 8(5), 724.

Value of capnography to predict defibrillation success in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. B Chicote, E Aramendi, U Irusta, P Owens, M Daya, A Idris. Resuscitation 2019, 138, 74-81.

Deep neural networks for ECG-based pulse detection during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. A Elola, E Aramendi, U Irusta, A Picón, E Alonso, P Owens, A Idris. Entropy 2019, 21(3) 305-324.

A Multistage Algorithm for ECG Rhythm Analysis during Piston Driven Mechanical Chest CompressionsI IsasiU IrustaE Aramendi, U Ayala, E Alonso, J Kramer-Johansen, T Eftestøl. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2019, 66 (1) 263-272.

A Machine Learning Shock Decision Algorithm for use during Piston-driven Chest CompressionsI Isasi, U Irusta, A Elola, E Aramendi, U Ayala, E Alonso, J Kramer-Johansen, T Eftestøl. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2019,  66(6) 1752-1760.

ECG-based pulse detection during cardiac arrest using random forest classifierA ElolaE AramendiU Irusta, J Del Ser, E Alonso, M Daya. Med Biol Eng Comput 2019, 57 (2) 453–462.

Rhythm characteristics and patterns of change during cardiopulmonary resuscitation for in-hospital paediatric cardiac arrest. T Nordseth, DE Niles, T Eftestøl, RM Sutton, U Irusta, BS Abella, RA Berg, VM Nadkarni, E Skogvoll. Resuscitation 2019, 135, pp. 45-50. 



Fuzzy and Sample Entropies as Predictors of Patient Survival Using Short Ventricular Fibrillation Recordings during out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest. B Chicote, U Irusta, E Aramendi, R Alcaraz, JJ Rieta, I Isasi, D Alonso, MM Baqueriza, K Ibarguren. Entropy 2018, 20(8), 591.

A novel technique to assess the quality of ventilation during pre-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation. E Aramendi, Y Lu, MP Chang, A ElolaU Irusta, P Owens, H Idris. Resuscitation 2018; 132, 41-46.

Evaluation of chest compression artefact removal based on rhythm assessments made by clinicians. E Alonso, E Aramendi, U Irusta, M Daya, C Corcuera, Y Lu, AH Idris. Resuscitation 2018; 125, 104-110.

An automatic system for the comprehensive retrospective analysis of cardiac rhythms in resuscitation episodes. AB Rad, T Eftestøl, U Irusta, JT Kvaløy, L Wik, J Kramer-Johansen, AK Katsaggelos, K Engan. Resuscitation 2018; 122, 6-12.



ECG-based Classification of Resuscitation Cardiac Rhythms for Retrospective Data Analysis. AB Rad, T Eftestol, K Engan, U Irusta, JT Kvaloy, J Kramer-Johansen, L Wik, AK Katsaggelos. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2017; 64 (10), 2411-2418.

Feasibility of the capnogram to monitor ventilation rate during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. E Aramendi, A Elola, E Alonso, U Irusta, M Daya, JK Rusell, P Hubner, F Stertz. Resuscitation 2017; 110, 162-168.



Application of Entropy-Based Features to Predict Defibrillation Outcome in Cardiac Arrest. B Chicote, U Irusta, R Alcaraz, JJ Rieta, E Aramendi, I Isasi, I, D Alonso, K Ibarguren. Entropy 2016; 18, 313.

Machine Learning Techniques for the Detection of Shockable Rhythms in Automated External Defibrillators. C Figuera, U Irusta, E Morgado, E Aramendi, U Ayala, L Wik, J Kramer-Johansen, T Eftestol, F Alonso-Atienza. PloS one 2016; 11 (7), e0159654

Automatic cardiac rhythm interpretation during resuscitation. AB Rad, K Engan, AK Katsaggelos, JT Kvaløy, L Wik, J Kramer-Johansen, U Irusta, T Eftestøl. Resuscitation 2016; 102, 44-50.

Circulation detection using the electrocardiogram and the thoracic impedance acquired by defibrillation padsE Alonso, E Aramendi, M Daya, U Irusta, B Chicote, JK Russell, LG Tereshchenko. Resuscitation 2016; 99, 56-62.

Filtering mechanical chest compression artefacts from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest dataE Aramendi, U Irusta, U Ayala, H Naas, J Kramer-Johansen, T Eftestøl. Resuscitation 2016; 98, 41-47.

To interrupt, or not to interrupt chest compressions for ventilation: that is the question! E Aramendi, U Irusta. Journal of Thoracic Disease 2016; 8(1): E121–E123.



Fully automatic rhythm analysis during chest compression pauses. U Ayala, U Irusta, J Ruiz, SR de Gauna, D González-Otero, E Alonso, J Kramer-Johansen, H Naas, T Eftestøl. Resuscitation 2015; 89, 25-30.

Reliability and accuracy of the thoracic impedance signal for measuring cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality metricsE Alonso, J Ruiz, E Aramendi, D González-Otero, SR de Gauna, U Ayala, JK Russell, M Daya. Resuscitation 2015; 88, 28-34.

Chest compression rate feedback based on transthoracic impedance. González-Otero DM, de Gauna SR, Ruiz J, Daya MR, Wik L, Russell JK, J Kramer-Johansen, T Eftestøl, E Alonso, Ayala U. Resuscitation 2015; 93, 82-88.



A new method for feedback on the quality of chest compressions during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
DM González-Otero, J Ruiz, S Ruiz de Gauna, U Irusta, U Ayala, E Alonso. BioMed research international 2014.

Beyond ventricular fibrillation analysis: Comprehensive waveform analysis for all cardiac rhythms occurring during resuscitation. E Alonso, T Eftestøl, E Aramendi, J Kramer-Johansen, E Skogvoll, T Nordseth. Resuscitation 2014; 85 (11), 1541-1548.

Automatic detection of chest compressions for the assessment of CPR-quality parameters. U Ayala, T Eftestøl, E Alonso, U Irusta, E Aramendi, S Wali, J Kramer-Johansen. Resuscitation 2014; 85 (7), 957-963.

Can thoracic impedance monitor the depth of chest compressions during out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation? E Alonso, D González-Otero, E Aramendi, SR de Gauna, J Ruiz, U Ayala, JK Russell, M Daya. Resuscitation 2014; 85 (5), 637-643.

Rhythm analysis during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: past, present, and future. S Ruiz de Gauna, U Irusta, J Ruiz, U Ayala, E Aramendi, T Eftestøl. BioMed research international 2014.

A reliable method for rhythm analysis during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. U Ayala, U Irusta, J Ruiz, T Eftestøl, J Kramer-Johansen, F Alonso-Atienza, E Alonso, D González-Otero. BioMed research international 2014.



Reliable extraction of the circulation component in the thoracic impedance measured by defibrillation pads. J Ruiz, E Alonso, E Aramendi, J Kramer-Johansen, T Eftestøl, U Ayala, D González-Otero. Resuscitation 2013;  84 (10), 1345-1352.

Direct evaluation of the effect of filtering the chest compression artifacts on the uninterrupted cardiopulmonary resuscitation time. J Ruiz, U Ayala, SR de Gauna, U Irusta, D González-Otero, E AramendiE Alonso, T Eftestøl. The American journal of emergency medicine 2013; 31 (6), 910-915.

Feasibility of automated rhythm assessment in chest compression pauses during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. J Ruiz, U Ayala, SR de Gauna, U Irusta, D González-Otero, E Alonso, J Kramer-Johansen, T Eftestøl. Resuscitation 84 (9), 1223-1228.



A high-temporal resolution algorithm to discriminate shockable from nonshockable rhythms in adults and childrenU Irusta, J Ruiz, E Aramendi, SR de Gauna, U Ayala, E Alonso. Resuscitation 2013; 83 (9), 1090-1097.

Suppression of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation artefacts using the instantaneous chest compression rate extracted from the thoracic impedanceE Aramendi, U Ayala, U Irusta, E Alonso, T Eftestøl, J Kramer-Johansen. Resuscitation 83 (6), 692-698.



Cardiopulmonary resuscitation artefact suppression using a Kalman filter and the frequency of chest compressions as the reference signal. J Ruiz, U Irusta, SR de Gauna, T Eftestøl. Resuscitation 2010; 81 (9), 1087-1094.

ECG spectral and morphological parameters reviewed and updated to detect adult and paediatric life-threatening arrhythmiaE Aramendi, U Irusta, E Pastor, A Bodegas, F Benito. Physiological measurement 201; 31 (6), 749.



An algorithm to discriminate supraventricular from ventricular tachycardia in automated external defibrillators valid for adult and paediatric patients.
U Irusta, J Ruiz. Resuscitation 2009; 80 (11), 1229-1233.

A least mean-square filter for the estimation of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation artifact based on the frequency of the compressionsU Irusta, J Ruiz, S De Gauna, T Eftestol, J Kramer-Johansen. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2009; 56 (4), 1052-1062.



A method to remove CPR artefacts from human ECG using only the recorded ECG. SR de Gauna, J Ruiz, U Irusta, E Aramendi, T Eftestøl, J Kramer-Johansen. Resuscitation 2008; 76 (2), 271-278.



Detection of ventricular fibrillation in the presence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation artefactsE Aramendi, SR de Gauna, U Irusta, J Ruiz, MF Arcocha, JM Ormaetxe. Resuscitation 2007; 72 (1), 115-123.