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ES12_LTC AENIGME –UPV/EHU_Franck Andrés Girot Mata

Franck Andrés GIROT MATA

+34 946 017 394

Frank.girot@ehu.eus

Group description

The LTC AENIGME is an initiative between the Department of Mechanical Engineering of the Faculty of Engineering of Bilbao and the Institute of Mechanics and Engineering of Bordeaux. It brings together researchers from UPV / EHU, UBx, ENSAM, INP Bordeaux.

The general theme of the LTC concerns the impact of sustainable processes on the preliminary design and in-service behavior of eco-components and structures.

The LTC activity involves all the upstream (process physical mechanisms and the behavior of matter) and downstream skills (design and industrialization) to provide tools for a greater use of sustainable processes while ensuring product quality from the perspective of the operating performance.

The LTC is thus organized around three main axes to develop the general theme outlined above:

  1. Sustainable and ecological design of components, structures, equipments and systems through and for sustainable manufacturing,
  2. Models and Processes for Sustainable Manufacturing,
  3. In service behavior of components or structures with strong gradients of properties.

The research line (1) focuses on bionic design, an interdisciplinary field which looks for inspiration in nature to provide solutions for design problems in different fields and various branches of industry such as Design, Aeronautics, Space Science, Automotive, Railways, Biomaterials… So, bionic design can be considered as a useful tool for generating concepts and developing products, which are visually pleasing and environmentally sustainable.

The research line (2) deals with machining by cutting or abrasive tools, magnetic pulse processes (welding and riveting) and additive manufacturing (SLM, LMD). These methods are manufacturing processes in extreme conditions of solicitation of the material and the tool. The originality and innovative nature of the research line concerns (i) the development of constitutive laws based on the material physical behavior (activity developed within the framework of the ITN Marie Curie “ENABLE” project; https://www.enable-project.com/), (ii) the tribology of the material/tool contact area taking into account the presence or not of a third body (based on DEM simulation), (iii) the development of fast and accurate simulation tools to model the manufacturing processes, based on a FEM solution including the strain gradient theory in large deformation, with parallel processors or High Performance Computing (ENABLE project), and (iv) the development of instrumented experimental means of process validation and characterization of components.

The research line (3) is characterized by the presence of strong gradients in the materials of the ecocomponents and concerns the development of (i) characterization techniques of these gradients, (ii) static and dynamic characterization as well as corrosion behavior of these parts, and (iii) relationships between process parameters, microstructure and in-service behavior properties.

Keywords

  • Machining
  • Magnetic pulse welding
  • Magnetic pulse riveting
  • Grinding
  • Microstructure
  • Fatigue behavior
  • Strain gradient theory
  • Process simulation
  • High Performance Computing
  • Industry 4.0

Team Description

  • Franck Andrés GIROT MATA (Principal Investigator RL1-RL2-RL3)

    ORCID: 0000-0003-3181-1132

  • Unai ALONSO PINILLOS (Co-Principal Investigator RL1)

    ORCID: 0000-0002-5385-438X

  • Borja Izquierdo Aramburu (Co-Principal Investigator RL1)

    ORCID: 0000-0003-2943-7284

  • Jose Antonio Sánchez (Co-Principal Investigator RL2)

    ORCID: 0000-0003-1187-0207

  • Edurne IRIONDO PLAZA (Co-Principal Investigator RL3)

    ORCID: 0000-0002-4552-3214

  • Raffaele RUSSO (PHD Students RL2)

    ORCID: 0000-0003-1934-2417

  • Trunal Dhawale BHUJANGRAO (PHD Students RL1-RL2)

    ORCID: 0000-0001-9325-2781

  • Leire Godino (Post-Doctoral Researcher RL2)

    ORCID: 0000-0002-0137-2995

  • Iñigo Pombo (Research staff RL2)

    ORCID: 0000-0001-8222-3459

  • Ibai OJEDA CAERAGA (PHD Students RL3)

Projects

  • ITN “ENABLE”

    Pl: F. Girot Mata

    Funding Agency*: EU

    Ongoing: yes

    Project reference: H2020-MSCA-ITN14/09

  • EKOHEGAZ

    Pl: F. Girot Mata

    Funding Agency*: RE

    Ongoing: yes

    Project reference: ELKARTEK21/64

  • ICME

    Pl: F. Girot Mata

    Funding Agency*: RE

    Ongoing: yes

    Project reference: ELKARTEK21/15

  • GrinDTWin

    Pl: I. Pombo

    Funding Agency*: NAT

    Ongoing: yes

    Project reference: PID2020-114686RB-I00

  • TURBO4.0

    Pl: B. Izquierdo Aramburu

    Funding Agency*: NAT

    Ongoing: yes

    Project reference: MINECOG17/P01

* INT - International EU - European NAT - National RE - Regional

Publications

  • Trunal Bhujangrao, Fernando Veiga, Catherine Froustey, Sandra Guérard, Edurne Iriondo, Philippe Darnis, Franck Girot Mata, = Experimental characterization of the AA7075 aluminum alloy using hot shear compression test, Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, 2021
    10.1007/s43452-021-00194-7

  • Raffaele Russo, Samuel Forest, Franck Andrés Girot Mata, = Thermomechanics of Cosserat medium: Modeling Adiabatic Shear Bands in Metals, Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics, 2020
    10.1007/s00161-020-00930-z

  • Raffaele Russo, Franck Andrés Girot Mata, Dimitri Jacquin and Samuel Forest, = A review on strain gradient approaches in simulation of manufacturing processes, J. Manuf. Mater. Process, 2020
    10.3390/jmmp4030087

  • L.Godino, I.Pombo, J.Girardot, J.A.Sanchez, I.Iordanoff, = Modelling the wear evolution of a single alumina abrasive grain: Analyzing the influence of crystalline structure, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 2020
    10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2019.116464

  • Unai Alonso Pinillos, Severo Raúl Fernández Vidal, Madalina Calamaz, and Franck Andrés Girot Mata, = Thermodynamically-Consistent Cosserat: Calibration of the Characteristic Lengths through Simulations of Hat-Shaped Specimens Under Compression, Materials, 2019
    10.3390/ma12182843

Research Lines

ADVANCED MATERIALS AND PROCESSES

Optimization of abrasive machining of Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC)

  • Ceramic Matrix Composites are a special type of materials consisting on ceramic fibres embedded in a ceramic matrix. This type of materials has very good stiffness/wight ratios together with very high hardness and thermal resistance. They also overcome mayor disadvantages of conventional ceramics (associated to their brittleness). Due to these properties they are used for manufacturing components such as high-temperature gas turbine parts, high-performance brakes disk among others.
  • One of the main challenges related to these materials is that their initial manufacturing step yields parts near to their final shape that need further manufacturing processes in order to obtain tight tolerances required for many applications. Abrasive machining is one of the most promising alternatives to finish CMC parts. In this case, tools use super-abrasive grains made of diamond or CNB, which are able to effectively remove materials as hard as CMCs. This research line aims at improving the understanding of this process and at the optimization of machining parameters and tool selection, with the final objective of improving process efficiency and workpiece quality. The effect of machining on the mechanical properties of the material will also be addressed, since it is crucial for sectors such as aeronautics and automotive.

DIGITAL AND CONNECTED FACTORY

Towards data driven models for advanced machining processes

  • Digital Twins are currently being stablished for integration of physical and data-driven models. The relation between process features and the machining status can be effectively accomplished by using this strategy. This approach enables predictive modelling of process stages to have a sound prediction of the quality of final products. Within this context, the development of accurate and feasible numerical models of the most important removal processes becomes a critical step towards practical Digital Twins. Advanced simulation tools such as Discrete Element Modelling provide an effective solution for modelling material removal processes. Key processes, but not limited to, will be considered, namely grinding, milling, turning, drilling, etc.
  • For example, within the advanced machine tool sector, grinding is one of the operations with the highest added value in the manufacture of mechanical components and has a very important presence in high-tech companies in the Basque Country and Nouvelle Aquitaine. It is a finishing operation in which dimensional and surface tolerances cannot be achieved by other manufacturing processes. The tool, the abrasive wheel, is a very complex composite that undergoes wear and very high temperatures at the interface when interacting with the very hard workpiece. The wear leads to loss of tolerances and finishes on critical parts in industries such as aerospace, wind power, etc. In addition, this process, often used in the finishing step of the process, leaves residual stresses in the part. The study and prediction of wear and stresses left in the material require, in the current state of knowledge, strategies of experimentation and trial and error, which limits the competitiveness of our companies. The proposed work should lead to the development of a digital twin of the grinding wheel behavior, optimized by means of a new generation of mechanical tests for quasi-brittle composites. The work should build on the previous knowledge of the groups involved in the process, such as machining. Thus, the basis for the work combines the know-how of the UPV / EHU and I2M groups in Machine Tools, in Discrete Element models (DEM) and advanced mechanical tests.
  • Hybrid approaches will also be taken into account, which will be especially useful for the machining of advanced materials, amongst which next generation composites are included. The final objective is to implement the knowledge into zero-defect production chains.

ENERGY EFFICIENCY

Magnetic pulse processes for components assembly

  • The aim of this research line is to model the magnetic pulse processes for joining dissimilar materials as are magnetic pulse welding (MPW) and magnetic pulse riveting (MPR). Both technologies are developed at high speed and due to their electromagnetic pulse source, a multiphysic coupled modelling is required (electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical).
  • Conventional welding processes present difficulties in joining new combinations of metals. Today's innovations introduce more and more dissimilar assemblies that meet new challenges, such as the requirement for lightweight, structural reinforcement, and other functional specifications. High-speed impact welding methods allow different metal combinations to be joined. The high pressure, short duration and low temperature bonding present the main particular characteristic of these methods. Welding involves a strong interfacial collision using the magnetic impulse (MPW). The use of electromagnetic pulse to provide a significant Lorentz force makes MPW an attractive method relative to other welding processes. The MPW is particularly promising in terms of cost, reliability, ease of use, flexibility, pace of work, absence of consumption requirements and eco-efficiency.
  • Conventional riveting techniques, such as press riveting and pneumatic riveting, can damage composite material structures, and have difficulties in deformation of high-strength materials and large aluminum rivets. In addition, pneumatic riveting is noisy and harmful to the operator due to the vibrations generated. These aspects limit the advancement of the development of lightweight structures in the transport sector. The magnetic pulse riveting technology has been developed to improve the quality of the rivets and to respond to the limitations of traditional methods, its most important advantages being deformation at high speeds, high impact force and uniformity of deformation. Electromagnetic rivets can obtain uniform interference, which facilitates its application in riveting of composite structures. In addition, electromagnetic pulses can generate high pressures exceeding the yield strength of large-size aluminum and high-strength alloy rivets.
  • Magnetic pulse processes contribute positively to achieve energy efficient industrial technologies. The input energy used to discharge through the electromagnetic coil suffers very low losses what makes highly efficient energetically, compared to other conventional processes that need to use large amounts of energy in order to melt the material to weld and moving mechanical elements to apply the force to induce the rivet plasticity. One of the keys, in terms of low energy use, is the direct use of the inertial forces generated during the pulse directly to form the material.
  • The modeling of all magnetic pulse shaping operations requires a transient electromagnetic calculation to obtain the currents and forces generated. The prediction of the deformation result is simulated in the last stage by means of an explicit structural simulation, since the forming process is carried out on time scales of about 100 μs. For a correct calculation of the forces generated during the process, it is necessary to couple the electromagnetic and mechanical simulation.
  • The type of modeling to be carried out for the simulation of the different operations of the electromagnetic process combines the electromagnetic and structural-mechanical models, so multiphysics simulation software is required. In this case, the Ansys LS-Dyna software will be used.
  • The scientific technological objectives pursued by this research line are:
    • Develop a Finite Element model for the simulation of the welding and riveting processes by means of magnetic impulse.
    • Validate the developed models with experimental results.
    • Quantify the existing deviations between the FEM models and the results of the experimental validation.
    • Develop a model to predict and correlate energy efficiency of the input energy and the model results.

SUSTAINABLE MANUFACTURING

Magnetic pulse processes for components assembly

  • The aim of this research line is to model the magnetic pulse processes for joining dissimilar materials as are magnetic pulse welding (MPW) and magnetic pulse riveting (MPR). Both technologies are developed at high speed and due to their electromagnetic pulse source, a multiphysic coupled modelling is required (electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical).
  • Conventional welding processes present difficulties in joining new combinations of metals. Today's innovations introduce more and more dissimilar assemblies that meet new challenges, such as the requirement for lightweight, structural reinforcement, and other functional specifications. High-speed impact welding methods allow different metal combinations to be joined. The high pressure, short duration and low temperature bonding present the main particular characteristic of these methods. Welding involves a strong interfacial collision using the magnetic impulse (MPW). The use of electromagnetic pulse to provide a significant Lorentz force makes MPW an attractive method relative to other welding processes. The MPW is particularly promising in terms of cost, reliability, ease of use, flexibility, pace of work, absence of consumption requirements and eco-efficiency.
  • Conventional riveting techniques, such as press riveting and pneumatic riveting, can damage composite material structures, and have difficulties in deformation of high-strength materials and large aluminum rivets. In addition, pneumatic riveting is noisy and harmful to the operator due to the vibrations generated. These aspects limit the advancement of the development of lightweight structures in the transport sector. The magnetic pulse riveting technology has been developed to improve the quality of the rivets and to respond to the limitations of traditional methods, its most important advantages being deformation at high speeds, high impact force and uniformity of deformation. Electromagnetic rivets can obtain uniform interference, which facilitates its application in riveting of composite structures. In addition, electromagnetic pulses can generate high pressures exceeding the yield strength of large-size aluminum and high-strength alloy rivets.
  • Magnetic pulse processes contribute positively to achieve energy efficient industrial technologies. The input energy used to discharge through the electromagnetic coil suffers very low losses what makes highly efficient energetically, compared to other conventional processes that need to use large amounts of energy in order to melt the material to weld and moving mechanical elements to apply the force to induce the rivet plasticity. One of the keys, in terms of low energy use, is the direct use of the inertial forces generated during the pulse directly to form the material.
  • The modeling of all magnetic pulse shaping operations requires a transient electromagnetic calculation to obtain the currents and forces generated. The prediction of the deformation result is simulated in the last stage by means of an explicit structural simulation, since the forming process is carried out on time scales of about 100 μs. For a correct calculation of the forces generated during the process, it is necessary to couple the electromagnetic and mechanical simulation.
  • The type of modeling to be carried out for the simulation of the different operations of the electromagnetic process combines the electromagnetic and structural-mechanical models, so multiphysics simulation software is required. In this case, the Ansys LS-Dyna software will be used.
  • The scientific technological objectives pursued by this research line are:
    • Develop a Finite Element model for the simulation of the welding and riveting processes by means of magnetic impulse.
    • Validate the developed models with experimental results.
    • Quantify the existing deviations between the FEM models and the results of the experimental validation.
    • Develop a model to predict and correlate energy efficiency of the input energy and the model results.

Cross-border Collaboration (if any)

The collaboration with UBx is materialized by the LTC AENIGME, an initiative between the Department of Mechanical Engineering of the Faculty of Engineering of Bilbao and the Institute of Mechanics and Engineering of Bordeaux. It brings together researchers from UPV / EHU, UBx, ENSAM, INP Bordeaux.

The aim of the LTC is to strengthen the strategic alliance between the Basque Country Campus of Excellence program “EUSKAMPUS” and Bordeaux Initiative of Excellence program “IdEx Bordeaux” by

  1. developing innovative research lines in the areas of eco-design, sustainable processes and the sustainability of eco-products, compatible with the research strategies of the two entities,
  2. increasing the participation of researchers from both entities in master courses developed by each site in order to promote among potential candidates to doctoral training the topics developed by the LTC,
  3. (facilitating and promoting exchanges of researchers and students (masters or doctorate) and
  4. sharing heavy investments, resources and knowledge.

During 2019 and 2020, the following main outcomes have been realized:

  • 12 PUBLICATIONS IN Q1 JOURNALS, 1 BOOK CHAPTER
  • 1 ITN MARIE SKLODOWSKA-CURIE IN PROGRESS
  • 1 CO-TUTELLE PhD FINALISED, 3 RUNNING
  • 1 COSUPERVISED PhD FINALISED, 3 RUNNING
  • 1 INTERNATIONAL PhD FINALISED, 2 RUNNING
  • 21 MONTHS OF MOBILITY REALIZED
  • 3 WORKSHOPS ORGANISED FOR PhD STUDENTS (1 ONLINE)
  • 60 HOURS OF SPECIFIC COURSES ORGANIZED (40 STUDENTS).